Seder Olam



Part 1 - Creation to Moses

Part 2 - The Prophets

Part 3 - Prophets to the 2nd Temple

  1. From Creation to Jacob
  3. Jacob
  5. The Covenant and Slavery
  7. The Flood
  9. The burning bush to Mt. Sinai
  11. At Sinai
  13. Consecration of the Tabernacle
  15. Book of Numbers
  17. The Fortieth Year
  19. The Death of Moses
  1. Joshua
  3. Judges
  5. Samuel, Saul, and David
  7. David
  9. Solomon
  11. Rehoboam to Asa
  13. Asa to Ahaziah
  15. Joash
  17. Jehu to Uzziah
  19. The Prophets
  1. The Prophets (continued)
  3. The Destruction of Samaria
  5. Hezekiah
  7. Manasseh to Jehoiakim
  9. Jehoiakim to Zedekiah
  11. Ezekiel
  13. The Fall of Jerusalem
  15. Daniel
  17. Ezra and Esther
  19. Nehemiah  to the end of the 2nd Temple



The Text of the Seder Olam:

Part 1

The Fortieth Year


(Num. 20:1) “The entire congregation came to the wilderness of Zin in the first month. The people dwelt at Kadesh. Miriam died there and was buried there.” (v.2) “There was no water for the congregation, so they assembled against Moses and Aaron” because the well had disappeared. This was in the fortieth year, on the first of the month of Nissan. At that time (v.14) “Moses sent messengers from Kadesh to the king of Edom.” Israel stayed there for three months (Num. 33:38) “Aaron the priest ascended Mount Hor by the command of the Eternal and died there. (v.39) “Aaron was 123 years old when he died on mount Hor.” When Aaron died, the clouds of glory vanished and the Canaanites came to wage war against Israel. (v.40) “The Canaanite, the king of Arad heard.” What did he hear? He heard that Aaron had died, the great scout, and the Cloud that had waged war for them had disappeared; so he came and waged war against them. They retraced their steps and returned seven stops and rested at Moserah as it is said (Deut. 10:6): “The children of Israel traveled from the cisterns of Sons of Jaakan to Moserah, there Aaron died.” But in fact he died on mount Hor. But from the place that he died they returned seven stops until they rested at Moserah. (Deut. 10:7) “From there, they traveled to Gudgodah, from Gudgodah to Jatbathah, a land of water streams.” (Num. 21:16) “And from there to the well,” that is the well that returned to them.


(Num. 21:10-11) “The Children of Israel traveled and camped at Oboth. They travelled from Oboth and camped at the ruins of Abarim, in the desert that faces Moab from the East.” (v.13) “From there they traveled and camped across the Arnon …;“ there they made war against Sihon (Num. 21:24) “And Israel smote him by the sword.” (v.33) “They turned and went up the way to Bashan …” (v.34) “The Eternal said to Moses, do not fear him …” (Num. 22:1) “The children of Israel traveled and camped in the prairie of Moab, across the Jordan from Jericho.” (Num. 25:19) “It was after the plague that the Eternal said to Moses and Eleazar the son of Aaron, the Priest: Count the head of all Children of Isreal …” (Num. 26:53) “For these, the Land shall be divided up …”, the sons gave back to the fathers and the fathers in turn let the sons inherit. Serah the daughter of Asher was from those who came to Egypt and those who left Egypt. From those who came to Egypt as it is said (Gen. 46:17): “and their sister Serah”, from those who entered the Land as it is said (Num. 26:46): “the name of the daughter of Asher was Serah.” Yokhebed was of those who came to Egypt and those who left it as it is said (Num. 26:59): “the name of the wife of Amram was Yokhebed daughter of Levi, to whom she was born in Egypt.’ (Cmp Gen 50:30 & Num 32:41) Jair the son of Manasseh and Makir the son of Manasseh were born when our forefather Jacob was still alive’ they died after the death of Moses our teacher. Nobah was born in Egypt, died after the death of Moses our teacher, and was buried in Transjordan. (Num. 26:65) “No single one of them was left except for Caleb son of Jephunneh and Joshua son of Nun.”


The Death of Moses


(Deut. 1:3-5) “It was in the fortieth year, in the eleventh month, on the first of the month, that Moses spoke to the Children of Israel, following all that the Eternal had commanded him about them. After he had smitten Sihon, the king of Heshbon,... in Transjordan, in the land of Moab…” From the first of Shebat to the sixth of Adar, during 36 days did our teacher Moses explain the entire Torah. On the sixth (Deut. 31:14) “the Eternal spoke to Moses, behold, your days came close to your death.” On the seventh (Deut. 31:1-2) “Moses went and spoke these words to all of Israel. Hundred and twenty years of age I am today.” Why does Scripture have to say ‘today’? It says ‘today’ to teach us that on seventh of Adar Moses was born and on the seventh of Adar he died as it is said (Deut. 34:5-7): “And Moses, the servant of the Eternal, died there in the land of Moab by the word of the Eternal. He buried himself in the valley, in the land of Moab, and nobody knows his burial place . . . . Moses was exactly 120 years old at his death, his eye had not dimmed and his sap had not dried up.” (Jos. 1:1-2) “It was after the death of Moses, the Servant of the Eternal, that the Eternal said to Joshua . . . My servant Moses died, and now get up to cross the Jordan…” (Jos. 1:10-11) “Joshua commanded the policemen of the people: Pass through the camp and order the people, saying, prepare provisions for yourselves for in three days you will cross the Jordan to come to inherit the Land that the Eternal gives you as inheritance.” (Jos. 4:19) “The people ascended from the Jordan on the tenth of the first month; they camped at Gilgal, on the eastern fringe of Jericho.” Count from here 33 days backwards and you are taught that Moses, our teacher, died on the seventh of Adar.


Three good providers arose for Israel, Moses, Aaron, Miriam. Three good gifts were given to Israel through them: the well, the pillar of clouds, and the manna. Manna by merit of Moses, the pillar of clouds by the merit of Aaron, the well by the merit of Miriam. When Miriam died, the well disappeared; it was restituted to Israel by the merits of Moses and Aaron. When Aaron died, the pillar of clouds disappeared and was restituted to Israel by the merits of Moses. When Moses died all three disappeared and were never restituted, a it is said (Zach. 11:8) “I removed the three shepherds in one month,” but did they die in one month, not rather in one year? Miriam died on the 10th of Nissan, Aaron on the first of Ab, Moses our teacher on the seventh of Adar. Rather, on the day of Moses’ death all three disappeared and never were restituted.


From the Manna that they collected on the Seventh of Adar they ate until the Sixteenth of Nissan as it is said (Jos. 5:12) “The Manna stopped the next day when they were eating from the yield of the Land; from thereon, the Children of Israel had no more Manna but they ate from the produce of the land of Canaan in that year.” Why does Scripture say (EX 16:35): “The Children of Israel ate Manna for forty years until they arrived at cultivated land,” on the day of Moses’ death, the Manna stopped coming down, “they ate the Manna until they came to the border of the land of Canaan,” that day the Manna that they had in their hands vanished. That makes forty years minus 30 days, plus the thirty days they ate from the cakes they brought with them from Egypt that was good for them like Manna.


Part 2




(Jos. 4:19) “The people ascended from the Jordan on the Tenth of” that month. They took with them 12 stones from the outside and deposited them under where the feet of the priests stood. They took another 12 stones from the Jordan and deposited them at Gilgal, at the Eastern border of Jericho. After they ascended from the Jordan they came to Mounts Gerizim and Ebal in Samaria, near Sichem, by the groves of Moreh as it is said (Deut. 11:30): “Behold, they are on the other side of the Jordan, westward, on the way to sunset…” There Israel recited the blessings and returned to the camp. The Stones they erected in their order as he had ordered them (Jos. 4:3) “saying, carry with you from here, from the Jordan, from the place of the feet of the priests, preparing twelve Stones and transfer them with you …” (Jo 4:20) “And those twelve stones that they had taken from the Jordan, Joshua erected them at Gilgal,” whitewashed them, and they wrote on it the Torah in 70 languages as it is said (Deut. 27:8): “Y shall write on them all the words of this Torah, well explained.” They sacrificed peace-offerings and ate there as is said (v.7): “You shall sacrifice peace offerings and eat there…” At that moment, Israel became obligated to the laws Hallah, ‘Orlah, and Hadash.


(Jos. 5:2) “At that time, the Eternal said to Joshua,” on the eleventh of Nissan. (v.3) “Joshua made flint-stone swords and circumcised the Children of Israel on the hill of foreskins.” On the fourteenth of Nissan, Israel slaughtered their Passover sacrifices as it is said (Jos. 5:10): “The children of Israel encamped and Gilgal and made Passover…” On the sixteenth of Nissan, Israel sacrificed the ‘Omer as it is said (Jos 5:11): “They ate from the yield of the Land…” After Passover, on the 22nd of Nissan, (Jos. 6:3) “You shall walk around the city…”, (v. 15) “it was on the Seventh day…”; R. Yose says, is was a Sabbath. The battles for Jericho, Ai, and Gibeon, were all within three months. On the third Tammuz,


(Jos. 10:12-13) “he said before the Children of Israel:Sun stand still over Gibeon, And Moon over valley of Ayalon! So the Sun was still And the Moon stood Until the people from its enemies vengeance took!


Caleb said to Joshua (Jos. 14:7): “I was 40 years old when Moses, the Eternal’s servant, sent me from Kadesh Barnea to spy out the land” (v.10) “and now I am 85 years old.” This teaches us that for seven years they were conquering. From where do we know that for seven years they were dividing up the land before they started to count years for tithes, sabbatical years, and jubilee years? Now Israel stayed 850 years from the time they entered until they left, these are complete Jubilee periods. And so it says (Ez. 40:1): “In 25th year of our exile, on the day of the New Year, on the tenth of the month, 14 years after the destruction of the of Jerusalem.” When did he Ezekiel have this vision? At the beginning of a Jubilee period. If they staid for 17 entire jubilee periods, how can there be an excess of 17 years? One has to say that 14 years Israel spent at Gilgal, seven when they were conquering and seven when they we distributing. After that (Jos. 18:1) “All the congregation of the Children of Israel assembled at Shiloh and there they put up the Tabernacle.” At that moment, they started to count years for tithes, sabbatical years, and Jubilee years. (Jos. 22:1-2) “Then Joshua called the Reubenites, the Gadites, and the semi-tribe of Manasseh and said to them: you kept everything that Moses, the Servant of God, had commanded you; you listened to my voice for all orders that I gave you.” Joshua sent them to their tents and blessed them. On their return they built a big altar for view. Joshua celebrated with them the first sabbatical year; he died before he finished the second one. The sanctuary at Shiloh was built on stone walls and was covered by woven tapestry; Israel worshipped in it for 369 years, then it was destroyed.




Joshua provided for Israel for 28 years. (Jos. 24:29-30) “It was after these words that Joshua, the son of Nun, the servant of God, died at the age of 110 years. They buried him at the border of his inheritance at Timnath-Serah in the mountains of Ephraim, North of Mount Gaash.” At that time died Eleazar as it is said: (Jos. 24:33) “Eleazar, the son of Aaron died, they buried him on the hill of his son Phineas.” (Jos. 24:31) “Israel served the Eternal all the days of Joshua and all the days of the elders who survived Joshua by days, who had known all the deeds of the Eternal that He had done for Israel”; days they survived but not years.


After him was Othniel son of Kenaz 40 years. Deduct from his rule eight years of subservience to Cushan Rishathaim. In the days of Cushan Rishathaim was the statue of Michah as it is said (Jud. 18:30): “the Children of Dan put up the idols for themselves and Jonathan the son of Gershom the son of Moses, he and his sons were priests for the tribe of Dan until the day of exile of the land.” Also in his time was the Concubine of Gibea, (Jud. 19:10,12): “He got up and went and came to the opposite of Jebus.... But his master said to him, let us not go to a city of Gentiles who are not Israelites.”


After him Ehud son of Gera 80 years, including 18 years subservience to Eglon, the king of Moab. In his days was Shamgar son of Anath, at the end of Eglon’s days. About the time of Eglon it was said (Ruth 1:1-2): “It was in the time of judging the judges, there was famine in the land and a man from Bethlehem in Judea went to dwell in the fields of Moab, he and his wife and his two sons. The name of the man was Elimelech,” and there it says (Ruth 1:13): “No, my daughters, it is more bitter for me than for you, for the hand of the Eternal went out against me”, and it is said (Jud. 2:15): “Whenever they ventured out, the hand of the Eternal was against them, for evil.” Nahshon son of Aminadab died in the second year after the Exodus. Salmon was of those who entered the Land, he died after Joshua (Jud. 2:10) “with his entire generation.” Elimelekh was Salmon’s brother.


After him Deborah and Baraq son of Abinoam 40 years. Deduct from these the subjugation under Jabin and Sisera 20 years. (Jud. 6:1): “The Children of Israel did evil in the eyes of the Eternal; so the Eternal gave them into the hand of Midian for seven years. Forty years of Gideon, but the seven years of Midian are not counted in them. (Jud. 9:22): “Abimelech lorded over Israel three years.” (Jud. 10:1-2): “After Abimelech there rose Tola’ son of Puah son of Dodo from the tribe of Issachar to save Israel. . . . He judged Israel for 23 years.


After him Jair from Gilead 22 years. Deduct from these One year that is counted for both of them.


(Jud. 10:6-8) “The Children of Israel continued to do evil in the eyes of the Eternal . . . . The rage of the Eternal was against Israel and He sold them into the hands of the Philistines and the Ammonites. They roughed up and oppressed the Children of Israel in that year, eighteen years, Israelites in Transjordan, in the land of the Emorite, that Gilead”; 18 years until the second year of Jephthah. In the second year of Jephthah, he said to the king of the Ammonites (Jud. 11:26): “While Israel dwelt at Heshbon and its surroundings, Ar’or and its surroundings, for 300 years, why did you not save at that time?” Jephthah ruled for six years. Ibzan son of Bethlehem seven years. Deduct from these one year that is counted for both of them. Elon of Zebulun ten years. Abdon son of Hillel eight years. Deduct from these a year that is counted for both of them. (Jud. 13:1) “The Children of Israel continued to do evil in the eyes of the Eternal; the Eternal gave them in the hand of the Philistines for forty years,” 20 in the time of Jephthah and 20 in the time of Samson.


Samuel, Saul, and David


Eli governed Israel for forty years. On the day of his death (Ps. 78:60-61,67): “He abandoned the sanctuary at Siloh…He gave His power into captivity… He despised the tent of Joseph.” (1 Sam. 6:1-2) “The ark of the Eternal was in the fields of the Philistines for seven months. The Philistines called…” (1 Sam. 7:1-2) “The people of Kiriath Jearim came… And from the day the ark was installed at Kiriath Jearim, there were many days, they added to twenty years…” Subtract from these the seven years that David ruled over Judah at Hebron, there are left 13 years. Subtract from these 10 for Samuel himself and two for Samuel and Saul.


(1 Sam. 7:2)” And from the day the ark was installed at Kiriath Jearim it was a long time, 20 years, all of Israel was drawn after the Eternal.” At the beginning of these 20 years they brought the Tabernacle to Nob. Even though the Ark of the Eternal was at Kiriath Jearim they sacrificed at Nob for 13 years and 7 years at Gibeon. At the end of 20 years did David bring up the Ark of the Eternal to the house of Obed-Edom the Gittite (2 Sam. 6:11) “and the Ark of the Eternal stayed in the house of Obed Edom the Gittite for three months.” This teaches us that Obed Edom was blessed only because of God’s Ark.


(1 Sam. 13:1) “One year Saul was in his reign …” Samuel said to Saul when he anointed him (1 Sam. 10:8) “Descend before me to Gilgal …” He descended the first year, smote Nahash the Ammonite, and Israel anointed him. The second year he descended and did not keep his promise. (l Sam. 13:13) “Samuel said to Saul; you acted foolishly, you did no keep the commandment of your God …” At that time, David was anointed as it is said (1 Sam. 16:1): “The Eternal said to Samuel: until when are you mourning for Saul…”, after that (v. 13) “Then Samuel took the horn of oil and anointed him in the midst of his brothers …” when he was 29 years old (1 Sam. 19:8) “Saul was hostile to David …” and it says (1 Sam 16:14): “The spirit of the Eternal had left Saul.” At that time Nob was destroyed and they came to Gibeon. Samuel lived only to be 52 years and a little, as it is said (1 Sam. 1:9-10) “And Eli the priest was sitting on the throne . . . but she was bitter in her soul …” at that time he had been appointed Judge over Israel and it says (1 Sam. 4:18): “He had judged Israel for 40 years.” There are 13 years remaining. Subtract from them one year for Hannah’s pregnancy and 11 years for Samuel and 1 year for Samuel and Saul, one gets 52 years. Samuel died before the death of Saul about four months as it is said (1 Sam. 27:7): “The number of days that David dwelt in the fields of the Philistines were some days and four months.” (2 Sam. 2:1) “It was after that that David inquired from the Eternal, shall I ascend to one of the cities of Judah …” (v. 10): “Forty years was Ishbosheth when he became king and two years he ruled …” It turns out that the kingdom over Israel was vacant for 5 years. (2 Sam. 5:3): “All the elders of Israel came to the king at Hebron …” At that time David was anointed a second time. (v. 4) “Thirty years was David when he became king and forty years he ruled.”




(l Chr, 15:25) “And David, the Elders of Israel, and the commanders over thousands went to bring the Ark of Covenant …” (l Chr. 16:1-3, 2 Sam. 6:17-19) “They brought the Eternal’s Ark and presented it in the tent that David had erected … David finished to bring the sacrifices … He distributed to all the people of Israel, from man to woman, per person one loaf of bread, a date cake, and a raisin cake.” (l Chr. 16:4) “He gave before the Eternal’s Ark servants from the Levites …” (l Chr. 16:7) “On that day, David appointed as head, to praise the Eternal, Asaph and his brothers.” In the morning they said (l Chr. 16:8): “Thank the Eternal, appeal to His name …” until (v. 22): “Do not touch my anointed, do not do evil to my prophets.” In the evening they said (v. 23): “Sing to the Eternal all the Land …” until (v. 36): “All the people said ‘Amen and praise to the Eternal.” This they were doing all of 43 years before the Ark until Solomon brought it to the eternal Temple. When David was fleeing before his son Absalom, Ebiathar was standing until they ascended the Mount of Olives and inquired of Urim and Thummim. Then Ebiathar was removed and Zadok replaced him and they returned the Ark to its place. But the Tabernacle that Moses had made in the desert, the copper alter made by Bezalel, the candelabra, the table, and the heavenly fire that had descended in the days of Moses, were at the holy place at Gibeon, (l Chr. 16:39) “But Zadok the priest and his brothers the priests were before the Eternal’s Tabernacle at the holy place at Gibeon.” (v. 40) “And with them Heman and Jeduthun …” This they did for 50 years at Gibeon until they came to the eternal Temple.


(2 Sam. 15:7-8) “It was at the end of 40 years that Absalom said … because your servant made a vow …” that was the 37th year of the reign of David. Rebbi Nahorai said in the name of R. Yehoshua, at the end of 40 years after Israel demanded a kingdom in the tenth year of Samuel the Seer. From here you can compute that Solomon was 12 years old on his accession, (2 Sam, 12:25) “The Eternal sent through Nathan the prophet and called his name Jedidiah…” At that time, (2 Sam. 13:1): “It was after that, Absalom the son of David had a beautiful sister, Tamar by name …” (v. 23) “It was after two years …” (v. 39) “But Absalom fled and went to Geshur; he was there for three years,” makes together five (2 Sam. 14:28) “Absalom lived in Jerusalem for two years and did not see the king,” that makes seven. (2 Sam. 21:1) “There was famine in the days of David for three years …” (2 Sam. 21:8) “They toured the entire land and returned to Jerusalem after 9 months and 20 days,” that makes 11 years. In his last year king David instituted the classes of priests and Levites and wrote the rules for the Temple, and it is written (2 Chr. 26:31): “In the fortieth year of the reign of David they were sought …”




(1 Kings 2:11) “The days that David ruled over Israel were 40 years …” And it is said (1 Kings 6:1): “It was in the 480th year after the Exodus, in the fourth year, in the month of Ziv, that is the second month, of Solomon’s rule over Israel, that he built the Temple.” In the second year of Jephthah, he said to the king of the Ammonites (Jud. 10:26): “While Israel dwelt at Hesbon and its surroundings, Ar’or and its surroundings, for 300 years …” and from Jephthah’s second year until the Temple was built 140 years, and 40 years that Israel was in the wilderness, makes together 480 years. The Temple was built in the middle of a Jubilee period and in the fourth year both of a Shemittah period and of Solomon’s reign as it is said (1Kings 6:37-38,7:1): “In the fourth year, the Temple had its foundation laid in the month Ziv. In the eleventh year, in the month Bul, that is the eighth month, the Temple was finished according to all its works and rules; it was seven years in building. His own house Solomon built for 13 years …”(1 Kings 8:1-2) “Then Solomon would assemble the elders of Israel and all the heads of the tribes, the hereditary princes of Israel, to king Solomon in Jerusalem, to bring up the Ark of the Covenant of the Eternal from the city of David, that is Zion. There assembled around king Solomon all men of Israel “ This teaches us that the Shekhinah dwells only on the general assembly, and so it is said (Lev. 9:24): “All the people saw and rejoiced” and it says (Lev. 9:5): “All the congregation assembled and stood before the Eternal”, and at the Giving of the Torah it says (Ex. 19:11): “On the third day, The Eternal will descend onto Mount Sinai before the eyes of all the people.” For the eternal Temple it says (2 Chr. 7:1) “When Solomon was finished with his prayer, the fire descended from heaven and consumed the holocausts and sacrifices and the glory of the Eternal filled the Temple.” (v.3) “All the Children of Israel saw the descent of the fire and the glory of the Eternal on the Temple, they fell face down to the earth on the floor and praised the Eternal, the truly good one, whose kindness is eternal.” About that hour it says (Song of Solomon 3:11): “Come out and look, o daughters of Zion, at the King Solomon, at the crown with which his mother crowned him at the day of his wedding and the day of the joy of his heart,” at the day of his wedding, at the eighth day after the dedication, and the day of the joy of his heart, at the completion of the eternal Temple.


(1 Kings 3:3) “Solomon loved the Eternal, going in the laws his father David,” four years until he started to build the Temple. (v. 1) “He took Pharaoh’s daughter and brought her to the city of David.” At that time (1 Kings 11:21): “Hadad heard in Egypt that David laid with his fathers and that Joab, the commander of the army, had died,” (v. 25) “He made war upon Israel all the days of Solomon like the evil that was Hadad. (1 Kings 10:27-29, 11:1) “The king made silver in Jerusalem like stones …, and the origin of Solomon’s horses was from Egypt …, there was imported from Egypt a chariot for 600 pieces of silver …, and king Solomon loved many foreign women in addition to Pharaoh’s daughter …,” that you end up saying (Jer. 32:3 1): “Certainly, for anger and rage was this city for me …” But in Solomon’s old age, close to his death, the holy spirit rested on him and he composed these three books: Proverbs, Song of Songs, Ecclesiastes.


Ahijah the prophet said to Jeroboam (1 Kings 11:38): “It will be if you listen to all that I am commanding to you, that you will walk in My ways and do the right thing in My eyes, to keep My laws and ordinances, as did David, my servant, then I shall be with joy and build for you a long lasting dynasty just as I did for David, and I shall give you Israel.” What did He build for David? He gave him rule over Israel for 36 years, 33 years for him and 3 years for his son. But since Jeroboam did not gain merit, his rule was finished in his hands after 33 years for him and 3 for his son. And so it says (1 Kings 11:39): “I shall deprive the seed of David for that, but not all the days.” What does he mean by “for that,” for the 36 years that Solomon was son-in-law of Pharaoh, and what does he mean by “but not all the days,” it was already clear before Him that Asa would go astray in the future.


Rehoboam to Asa


(1 Kings 11:42) “The days that Solomon ruled in Jerusalem over all of Israel, 40 years.” His son Rehoboam 17 years. Abijah, the latter’s son, 3 years. (1 Kings 15:9) “In the year 20 of Jeroboam, king of Israel, Asa became king over Jehudah.” (2Chr. 12:13) “For 41 years old was Rehoboam when he became king and 17 years did he rule in Jerusalem.” You would say, how long did David see him? One year. They kept the Torah, he and his sons, for three years but in the fourth year they rebelled as it is said (2 Chr. 12:13): “They walked in the ways of David and Solomon for three years.” In the fourth they rebelled against the Omnipresent one as it is said (2 Chr. 12:1): “It was when the rule of Rehoboam was well-founded and fortified that he, and all Israel with him, abandoned the Torah of the Eternal.” (1 Kings 14:24): “And even male prostitutes were in the Land …” (2 Chr. 12:2) “It was in the year five of king Rehoboam that Shishak, the king of Egypt, went against Jerusalem since they were untrue against the Eternal.” (v. 9) “He took all treasures of the Temple and the treasures of the royal palace…”


(2 Chr. 13:19-20) “Abijah pursued Jeroboam and captured cities from him, Bethel and its surroundings, Jeshanah and its surroundings, and Ephron and its surroundings. And Jeroboam did not regain strength in the days of Abijah, and the Eternal smote him and he died.” You do not know who was smitten. But we can say that Jeroboam buried Abijah. And why did the king not slay him? The Omnipresent One smite him because he was standing and upbraiding Israel, saying to them (2 Chr. 13:8): “With you are the golden calves that Jeroboam made as gods for you,” but when he captured Bethel he saw the golden calf and left it standing; therefore the Omnipresent One smote him.


Asa ruled 41 years. (2 Chr. 14:1) “In his days, the land was quiet for 10 years.” In Asa’s 16th year came Zerah the Nubian and returned to Asa all the loot that Shishak, the king of Egypt, had looted from Jerusalem. Asa took it in the year 35 after Solomon’s death. The Eternal put up Rezon son of Elyada as aggressor against Israel. (2 Chr. 16:1) “In the year 36 of Asa’s reign, Basha the king of Israel attacked Jehudah …” It is impossible to say so since Asa buried Basha in the year 26 of his reign. What does Scripture have to tell us? Corresponding to the 36 years that Solomon was married to the daughter of Pharaoh, the king of Egypt, and corresponding to the 36 years that it was ordained that the kingdom of David should be split but then it should return to them, and corresponding to the 36 years that it was ordained that the kings of the Arameans should attack Israel but then to fall by the hands of the Davidic dynasty; therefore it says ‘In the year 36 of Asa’s reign’ This was in Asa’s year 16 after Zerah the Nubian fell into his hands, that is the year 36 after Solomon’s death. At that time, the kings of Israel and Aram concluded an alliance to go up and make war against Asa and Asa went astray. (2 Chr. 16:2-5) “Asa took silver and gold from the treasuries of the Temple and the Palace and sent to Ben-Hadad the king of Aram who was headquartered at Damascus, saying: There is a treaty between me and you and between my father and your father. Look, I sent you silver and gold that you should violate your treaty with Basha the king of Israel, that he should withdraw from me. Ben-Hadad listened to king Asa and send his army commanders against cities of Israel, they smote Ijon, Dan, and Abel Maim, and the all the storage cities of Naphtali. When Basha heard this, he refrained from building Ramah and stopped the work.” (2 Chr. 16:7-9) “At that time, Hanani the seer came to Asa, king of Jehudah, and said to him: ‘Because you relied on the king of Aram and did not rely on the Eternal, your God, therefore the army of the king of Aram has escaped your hand. Were not the Nubians and Libyans an enormous army with chariots and horsemen, but when you relied on the Eternal they were given in your hands. Certainly, the eyes of the Eternal scan the entire earth to strengthen those whose heart is full with him; you were silly in this for from now on you will have war with you.” The kings of Aram did not stop attacking Israel until the death of Ahaz. In the days of Ahaz, the kings of Israel and Aram formed an alliance to go up and make war against Ahaz, but Ahaz had no merit that they should fall by his hand, so both of them fell by the hand of Tiglath-Peleser, the king of Assyria.


Asa to Ahaziah


Basha ruled 24 years. Elah his son two years. So Asa buried Elah in the 27th year of his reign. Zimri killed Elah and ruled after him 7 days at Tirzah. (1 Kings 16:16) “The people in the camp heard that Zimri had plotted and slain the king; all Israel in the camp declared the commander Omri as king of Israel at that day.” (1 Kings 16:21) “The people were split in the middle; half of the people were after Tibni son of Gmat to make him king, and half after Omri.” How did that split endure? (40) 4 years. In the year 31 of Asa, Omri became undisputed king (1 Kings 16:22): “The people that were behind Omri Overcame the people behind Tibni son of Gmat.” Why did they kill Tibni? When Omri married his daughter to Jehoshaphat’s son they killed Tibni. Omri ruled for 12 years. (1 Kings 16:29) “Ahab, the son of Omri, became king over Israel in the year 38 of Asa, the king of Judah, Ahab son of Omri ruled over Israel in Samaria for 22 years.” In the year 4 of Ahab did Jehoshaphat become king. He was 35 years old at his accession and ruled 25 years over Jerusalem. In the year 13 of Ahab there was a great famine in Samaria for three years, followed by war with Ben Hadad for 2 1/2 years. (1 Kings 22:1) “They sat three years without war between Aram and Israel.” Ahaziah son of Ahab ruled for two years. In Ahaziah’s second year, Elijah was hidden and will not be seen again until King Messiah will come, then he will be seen, then hidden a second time until Gog and Magog come. But now he writes down the deeds of all generations. (2 Kings 1:17) “He (Ahaziah) died, following the Eternal’s word that Elijah had spoken.”


(2 Kings 1:17) “Jehoram was king in his stead in the year 2 of Jehoram, the son of Jehoshaphat, since he had no son.” Is it possible to say this? Did not Jehoram become king in the year (9) 18 of Jehoshaphat? But since it said (1 Kings 22:32) “Jehoshaphat cried,” Jehoshaphat should have been killed at that moment but by the merit of the cry that he cried does the verse give him another 7 years, but the government is counted for his son. (2 Kings 8:16) “In the year 5 of Joram son of Ahab the king of Israel, and Jehoshaphat being king of Judah, did Jehoram son of Jehoshaphat become king of Judah.” When they returned from war, after they killed Ammon, Moab, and Mount Seir, they came and made Jehoram king of Judah. (2 Chr. 21:2-3) “He had brothers, sons of Jehoshaphat, Azariah, Jehiel, Zechariah, Azariahu, Michael, and Shephatiah… Their father gave them many gifts of silver, gold, delicacies, with fortified cities in Judah; but the reign he gave to Jehoram who was the firstborn.” After the death of Jehoshaphat, Jehoram stood up and killed his brothers by the sword, as is said (2 Chr. 21:4): “Jehoram took over the kingdom of his father and established himself firmly; then he killed all his brothers by the sword and also from the princes of Israel.” (2 Chr. 21:12) “There came to him a letter from the prophet Elijah …” seven years after Elijah was hidden.


(cf. 2 Kings 8:17) Thirty-two years Jehoram was when he became king and eight years he ruled in Jerusalem. About his son Ahaziahu it says (2 Kings 8:26): “22 years old was Ahaziahu when he became king” and at another place it says (2 Chr. 22:2): “42 years old was Ahaziahu when he became king and he ruled for one year.” Rebbi Yose said: How is it possible for a son to be two years older than his father? But when Asa married his son to the daughter of Omri there was issued a heavenly decree that the dynasty of David should come to an end with the house of Ahab, and so it says (2 Chr. 22:7): “From God was the downfall of Ahaziahu to come to Joram …” and both of them fell together on the same day.




In the time of Jehoram son of Ahab there was an extended famine in Samaria for 7 years; during that time Ben Hadad made war against Israel. In the last year did Elisha curse Gehazi. Elisha went to Damascus and anointed Hazael as king over Aram and sent Jonah son of Amittay to anoint Jehu at Ramoth Gilead. (2 Chr. 22:8-9) “It was when Jehu executed judgment over the house of Ahab, he found the princes of Judah and the nephews of Ahaziah serving Ahaziah, and he killed them. He searched for Ahaziah and caught him while he was hiding in Samaria, he killed and buried him …” (2 Kings 11:1-3) “But Athaliah, the mother of Ahaziah, when she saw that her son was dead, she took the initiative and killed all aspirants to the throne. But Jehosheba, the daughter of King Joram, sister of Ahaziah, took Joash, the son of Ahaziah and stole him from amongst the king’s sons who were being put to death, him and his wet-nurse from the bed room, and they hid him from Athaliah and he was not put to death. He was with her in the Eternal’s house for six years…”; about him the verse says (Ps. 27:5): “He surely will hide me in His hut on the day of evil, He will conceal me in His secret tent, on the rock He will lift me up!” What is ‘on the rock He will lift me up’? That refers to the priest Jehoiada, a man similar to a rock. (2 Kings 11:12) “He anointed him . . . and they said: ‘long live the king!’ (2 Kings 11:20) “The people of the land were joyous and the city was quiet …” (2 Kings 12:1-2) “Seven years old was Jehoash when he became king. In the year 7 of Jehu did Jehoash become king and 40 years he ruled in Jerusalem.” In Joash’s 23rd year did he renovate the Temple; that makes 155 years from the time that Solomon built it until Joash renovated it. (2 Chr. 24:2) “Joash did what was right in the eyes of the Eternal all the days of Jeholada the priest.” (2 Chr. 24:15) “When Jehoiada aged and went along in years he died, 130 year he was at his death.” When the corruption started in the times of Solomon, Jehoiada who fixed it was born. (2 Chr. 24:16) “After the death of Jehoiada, the princes of Judah came,” this shows that Joash set himself up as a deity as it is said “they prostrated themselves before the king; then the king listened to them.”


Jehu to Uzziah


Jehu ruled over Israel for 28 years. (2 Kings 10:30) “And the Eternal said to Jehu: Since you were good and did the right things in my eyes, all my intentions you executed on the dynasty of Ahab, your Children of the fourth generation will sit on the throne of Israel.” Who said that to him? Jonah son of Amittai. (2 Kings 10:31-32) “In these days did the Eternal start to reduce the boundaries of Israel; Hazael smote them along all borders of Israel. From the Jordan estwards …” (2 Kings 13:1) “In the 23rd year of Joash son of Ahaziah, the king of Judah, did Jehoahaz son of Jehu become king over Israel at Samaria, for 17 years.” (v. 10) “In the year 37 of Joash, the king of Judah, did Jehoash son of Jehoahaz become king over Israel at Samaria for 16 years.” (v. 14) “And Elisha became sick with his final sickness,” that was in the tenth year of Joash, the king of Israel. From there one may compute the number of years during which Elisha cared for Israel, from year 19 of Jehoshaphat until now, more than 60 years.


(2 Kings 14:1-2) “In the second year of Joash son of Johaz the king of Israel did Amaziah son of Joash become king of Judah. He was 25 years old when he became king and he was king for 22 years.” In the 12th year of Amaziah (2 Kings 14:7) “he smote Edom in the Salt Valley …” (2 Chr. 25:14-16) “It was when Amaziah returned from vanquishing the Edomites, he brought the idols of the sons of Seir and put them up for himself as gods before whom he would prostrate himself and to whom he burned incense. The anger of the Eternal was raging against Amaziah and he sent to him a prophet.


When he was talking to him, he said to him, did they make you a king’s counselor? Stop, why should they kill you. The prophet stopped and said: ‘I know, that God has given counsel to destroy you since you did this and did not listen to my counsel.” What was the counsel that the Omnipresent counseled about him? (2 Chr. 25:17-20) “Amaziah, the king of Judah, took counsel and sent to Joash son of Joahaz son of Jehu, the king of Israel, saying: ‘let us have a fight’. Joash, the king of Israel, sent to Amaziah, the king of Judah, saying: ‘the thistle of the Lebanon sent to the cedar of Lebanon.... You said, lo, you smote Edom, so your mind got overbearing… But Amaziah did not listen because this was from God.


(2 Chr. 25:22-24) “Judah was beaten before Israel, each one fled to his tent. And Amaziah, the king of Judah, son of Joash son of Jehoahaz did Joash, the king of Israel, catch at Beth Shemesh … All the gold and silver and all vessels of the Temple in the custody of Obed Edom, the treasures of the palace, and the hostages, and he returned to Samaria.” At that time, Joash died and Amaziah returned to Jerusalem. (2 Chr. 14:25) “Amaziah son of Joash, the king of Judah, lived after the death of Joash son of Jehoahaz, the king of Israel, for 15 years.” (2 Chr. 25:27) “And from the moment that Amaziah deviated from behind the Eternal,” that he did not listen to the prophet, “there started a conspiracy against him in Jerusalem and he fled to Lachish.”


(2 Chr. 26:3) “16 years old was Uzziah when he became king and he ruled for 52 years.” (v. 5) “He went to seek God as long Zachariah his instructor lived, and as long as he inquired after the Eternal, God gave him success.” What kind of success did God give him? (2 Chr. 26:2, 2 Kings 14:22) “He built Elath and returned it to Judah after the king slept with his fathers.” What does the verse mean by ‘after the king slept with his fathers?’ That he ruled during the lifetime of his father. Another explanation: Just as Jehoram, Ahaziah, and Joash died a death of suffering through the hands of others, so Amaziah died a death of suffering through the hands of others. Uzziah and Jeroboam came to rule at the same time except that Jeroboam ruled for one year during the lifetime of his father as it is said (2 Kings 13:13): “and Jeroboam sat on his throne.” (2 Kings 15:1) “In the year 27 of Jeroboam, the king of Israel, did Azariah son of Amaziah became king of Judah.” It is impossible to say so since both of them became kings together, but he (Azariah) ruled a leprous rule, and so it says (2 Chr. 26:2 1): “Uzziah the king was a leper until the day of his death.” Also, it says (l Chr. 5:17) “They all were counted in the census of Jotham, the king of Judah, and Jeroboam, the king of Israel.” It is impossible to say so since Uzziah buried Jeroboam and three kings after him, but all the 25 years that Uzziah was a leper, his son Jotham was the Chief Minister and judged the people of the land. Jeroboam son of Joash ruled for 41 years. (2 Kings 15:8) “In the year 38 of Azariah, the king of Judah, did Zechariah son of Jeroboam become king over Israel at Samaria for six months.” (2 Kings 15:12) “That was the word of the Eternal that He had said to Jehu: ‘Descendants in the fourth generation will sit on the throne of Israel.”


The Prophets


It says (Zach. 14:5): “And you will flee to the mountain va1ley because the mountain valley will reach Azal, you will flee a you fled because of the earthquake in the days of Uzziah, the king of Judah.” (Isa. 1:1) “Vision of Isaiah son of Amoz that he saw about Judah and Jerusalem in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, Hezekiah, kings of Judah.” (Hos.1:1) “The word of the Eternal that was to Hosea son of Beeri in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, Hezekiah, kings of Judah and in the days of Jeroboam son of Joash, King of Israel.” (Amos 1:1) “The words of Amos who was from the shepherds of Tekoa that he saw about Israel in the days of Uzziah, the king of Judah, and Jeroboam son of Joash, king of Israel, two years before the earthquake.” (Micah 1:1) “The word of the Eternal that was to Micah of Moresheth in the days of Jotham, Ahaz, Hezekiah, kings of Judah, that he saw about Samaria and Jerusalem.” This teaches us that all of them prophesied during the same period. But you do not know who preceded whom. But since it says (Hosea 1:2): “The word of the Eternal was first to Hosea. . ,“ for Amos it says “two years before the earthquake,” and for Isaiah it says (Isa. 6:1): “In the year of death of king Uzziah…” and that was the moment of the earthquake as it is written (v. 4) “The supports of the thresholds were moving… (Micah 1:1) “The word of the Eternal that was to Micah of Moresheth in the days of Jotham …” this proves that the others all preceded Micah.


(Obadiah 1:1) “Vision of Obadiah,” when was this war? In the days of Amaziah (1 Kings 22:48) “No kings stood up over Edom.” Since the Edomites fell in the days of Amaziah they did not put up a king not raise their heads until today. Since the Arameans fell according to the words of Elisha they did not get up again, only they woke up in the days of Ahaz and fell. Since the Philistines fell in the days of Hezekiah they did not put up a king until today. And since Egypt fell through Nebuchadnezzar, it did not raise itself over any peoples at it is said (Ez. 29:15): “Among kingdoms it will be lowly and not raise itself further over peoples...


(lChr. 2:6) “The sons of Zerah: Zimri, Ethan, Heman, Kalkol, Dara’, altogether five;” these prophesied in Egypt. (Ex. 6:24) “The sons of Korah: Assir, Elkanah, Abiasaph,” they prophesied in the wilderness. (Jud. 6:6) “The Eternal sent a prophetic man to the Children of Israel,” that was Phineas. (1 Sam. 2:27) “A man of God came to Eli,” that was Elkanah. (l Chr. 9:22) “These were instituted by David and Samuel in their faith,” these are the 24 clans of priests and Levites.


Gad the seer and Nathan the prophet established the rules of the Temple service together with David. Asaph, Heman and Jedutun prophesied in David’s time. Ahiyyah said to Solomon (1 Kings 6:12-13): “This Temple that you are building, if you will walk in my rules, implement my laws, and keep all my commandments to walk in them . . . then I shall dwell among the children of Israel and never abandon My people Israel.” At the end, he said to him (1 Kings 11:11): “Because that was found with you that you did not keep my covenant, and my rules...” Shemaiah said to Rehoboam (2 Chr. 11:4): Do not attack and make war against your brethren …” At the end, when they were fleeing before Shishak (2 Chr. 12:7), This was the word of the Eternal to Shemaiah saying, they submitted , I shall not destroy them …” Was his name Sishak and not rather Zebub as it is said (Isa. 7:18): “On that day, the Eternal will whistle to the fly (zébüb) that is at the end of the Nile branches of Egypt and to the bee in the land of Assyria.” So why is he called Shishak because he was waiting and watching when Solomon would die since Solomon was unique, and after the death of Solomon he came and took the treasures of the Temple. The prophet Iddo prophesied about he altar at Bethel and said (1 Kings 13:2) “Altar, altar …” (2 Chr. 15:1-2) “The spirit of God was upon Azariah son of Oded and he went out before Asa and all of Judah and Benjamin. (2 Chr. 16:7) “At that time came Hanani, the seer, to Asa king of Judah.” Michaih said to Ahab (1 Kings 20:13): “So says the Eternal, did you see all this great multitude, I shall give them into your hands today …” The second time, he told him (1 Kings 20:22): “Go, strengthen yourself, know and see what you are doing …” The third time, he said to him (1 Kings 20:28): “Because Aram said that the Eternal is a god of mountains …” (1 Kings 20:35) “One man of the younger prophet said to his neighbor: by the Eternal’s word, hit me…” They said, this was Michaih. At the end, he said to him (1 Kings 22:20): “The Eternal said: who will seduce Ahab? …And in the days of Jehoshaphat (2 Chr. 19:2), “before him went Jehu son of Hanani, the seer, …” (2 Chr. 20:14) “and Jahaziel son of Zechariah son of Benaiah son of Jeiel son of Mattaniah, the Levite of the descendant of Asaph . . . .“ (2 Chr. 20:37) “And Eliezer son of Dodavahu from Mareshah prophesied about Jehoshaphat …” In the days of Joram (2 Chr. 21:12) “a letter from Elijah was delivered to him …” In the days of Joash (2 Chr. 24:19-20) “he sent to them prophets to make them return to the Eternal and… the spirit of God clothed Zechariah son of Jehoiada…” In the days of Amaziah (2 Chr. 25:7) “a man of God came to him to say: Oh king, do not let the army of Israel come with you …” At the end, he told him (2 Chr. 25:16): “I understand that God has planned to destroy you…” They say, this was his brother Amoz.  In the days of Ahaz (2 Chr. 28:9) “there was a prophet of the Eternal by the name of Oded…”  Joel, Nahum, and Habakkuk prophesied in the days of Manasseh but because Manasseh was no good they are not referred to him. And so it says (2 Chr. 33:10-1 1): “The Eternal spoke to Manasseh and to his people and they did not listen. Therefore, the Eternal brought over them the generals of the king of Assyria and they caught Manasseh with hooks…”


(Zeph. 1:1) “The word of the Eternal that was upon Zephaniah son of Cushi son of Gedaliah son of Amariah son of Hezekiah …” (Jer. 1:1) “The words of Jeremiah son of Hilkiah. (Ez. 1:3) “The word of the Eternal was to Ezekiel son of Buzi the priest …” All of these were prophets at the time of the destruction of the Temple. Baruch son of Neriah son of Mahseiah, and Daniel, the lovely man, were in the time of Nebuchadnezzar. Mordecai the Jew, Haggai, Zachariah and Malachi all prophesied in the second year of Darius. You find (among the prophets) 10 who were called “man of God”: Moses, Elkanah, Samuel, David, Shemaiah, Iddo, Elijah, Elisha, Micah and Amoz. Samuel and Hanani were called seers since it says about them “the seer.” Ezekiel and Daniel are called “son of man.”


The Prophets (continued)


It is said about our forefather Abraham (Gen. 20:7): “And now return the man’s wife because he is a prophet.” About Sarah it is said (Gen. 11:29): “the daughter of Haran, the father of Milkah and of Jessica.” From where do we know that the patriarchs and matriarchs are called prophets? Because it says (l Chr. 16:20, 22): “They wandered from people to people and from one kingdom to another nation. Do not touch my anointed and do not harm my prophets.” About Miriam it says (Ex. 15:20): “And Miriam, the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took…” About Deborah it says (Jud. 4:4): “Deborah was a prophetess.” About Hannah (1 Sam. 2:1)3: “Hannah prayed and said: My heart is jubilant in the Eternal, my horn is lifted by the Eternal.” Abigail prophesied for David and David told her (1 Sam. 25:33): “Blessed be your understanding.” About Huldah it says (2 Kings 22:14, 2 Chr. 34:22): “to Huldah the prophetess.” About Esther it is said (Esther 9:29): “And Esther the queen, the daughter of Abihail, wrote (with the assistance of Mordecai the Jew) all this valid document.” These are the 48 prophets and 7 prophetesses that prophesied for Israel and who are mentioned in Scripture, but there were prophets in number equal to those who left Egypt and they were not mentioned by name. One could think that (those that are not mentioned) were few, but Scripture says (2 Kings 2:7): “And 50 men from among the young prophets went.


One could think that (those that are not mentioned) were not professionals, but Scripture says (2 Kings 2:3,5): “They said to him: Do you know that today the Eternal will remove your master from your head”; they do not say ‘our master’ but ‘your master’; this shows that there all were Elijah’s equals and more weighty than Elisha. Similarly, Moses said (Deut. 5:26): “May their heart be like that all the time,” and he said (Num. 11:29): “If only all of the Eternal’s people were prophets that the Eternal would give His spirit onto them.” And Obadiah said to Elijah (1 Kings 18:13): “Certainly it was told to my master what I did when Jezebel killed all the prophets of the Eternal, and I hid from the prophets of the Eternal 100 men …” not counting those that were in Judah and Benjamin. And Elijah said to Elisha (2 Kings 2:2-3): “Please, stay here because the Eternal sent me to Bethel. And the young prophets that were at Bethel came out …” Then he said to him (2 Kings 2:5,7): “Please, stay here because the Eternal sent me to the Jordan... And 50 from the young prophets went …” because there was no single city in Israel without its prophets. But very prophecy that was important for future generations was written down,  what was for its time only was not written. About these it is spelled out in Song of Songs (4:10- 11): “How beautiful is your friendship, o sister, bride, how much better is your friendship than wine and the smell of your oils than all spices. Your lips, o bride, drip of flowing honey; honey and milk is under your tongue …”


About Adam it says (Gen. 2:2 1): “And God made fall sleep on Adam . . . .9” About Noah it says (Gen. 6:9): “Noah was a just, raightforward man in his generation, Noah walked with God.” About Japheth it says (Gen. 9:27): “May God beautify Japheth”. About Shem it says (Gen. 9:26): “Praised be the Eternal, the God of Shem,” (Ps. 110:4) “about my word to Melchizedek” About Eber it says (Gen. 10:25): “The name of one of them was Peleg since in his days the earth was split These are the prophets that arose in the world before our forefather Abraham came to the world. And since our forefather Abraham came to the world: Balaam’ and his father, Job from the land of Oz, Eliphaz the Yemenite, Bildad the Shuhite, Zopher the Naamite, and Elihu son of  Berachel the Buzite. These are the prophets that arose in the world before the Torah was given to Israel. But after the Torah was given to Israel, the Divine Spirit stopped among the Gentiles, and so


Moses said (Ex. 33:16): “By what should it then be known that I found grace in Your eyes, I and Your people, only that You would go in our midst, and we would be distinguished, I and Your people, from all other peoples on the face of the earth.” From where (do we know) that the Holy One, praise to Him, fulfilled his wish? Because it says (Ex. 34:10): “Behold, I am concluding a covenant, before all of your people I shall work miracles. . .“; at that moment the Divine spirit stopped among the Gentiles.


The Destruction of Samaria


Shallum son of Jabesh slew Zechariah and ruled after him a month in Samaria. (2 Kings 15:14) “There rose Menahem son of Gadi from Tirzah …” (2 Kings 15:17) “In the year 39 of Azariah, the king of Judah, did Menahem son of Gadi become king over Israel for ten years.” (2 Kings 15:23) “In the year 50 of Azariah, the king of Judah, did Pekahiah son of Menahem become king of Israel at Samaria for two years.” (2Kings 15:27) “In the year 52 of Azariah, the king of Judah, did Pekah son of Remaliah become king of Israel at Samaria for twenty years.” (2 Kings 15:32-33) “In the year 2 of Pekah son of Remaliah’, the king of Israel, did Jotham son of Uzziahu, the king of Judah, become king. He was 25 years old at his accession and ruled for 16 years in Jerusalem.” (2 Kings 16:1- 2) “In the year 17 of Pekah son of Remaliahu did Ahaz son of Jotham become king of Judah. Ahaz was 20 years old at his accession and 16 years he ruled in Jerusalem.” In Pekah’s year 17 (2 Chr. 28:6): “Pekah son of Remaliahu slew in Judah 120’OOO at one day.. .“ (v. 19) “Because the Eternal had humbled Judah because of king Ahaz …” (v. 7-8) “Zikri, the strongman of Ephraim, killed Maäseiahu, the king’s son, Azrikam, the head of the household, and Elkanah, the viceroy. The men of Israel captured 200’OOO women and children …” In Pekah’s year 20 there happened (Isa. 7:1-6): “It was in the days of Ahaz... It was told to the house of David . . . The Eternal said to Isaiah... Tell him... Because they took counsel ... Let us go up against Judah and dismember it . .. So says the Eternal, God: It shall not continue and not be.” At that time (2 Kings 16:9-10): “Ahaz took all the silver and gold that was found in the Temple and the king’s treasuries and sent it as a bribe to the king of Assyria. The king of Assyria listened to him…” In Pekah’s year 20 (2 Kings 15:29) “came Tiglath Pileser…”He took the golden calf at Dan and went away. And so it says (2 Chr. 28:20-21): “There came against him Tilgath Pilneeser, the king of Assyria, and oppressed him, he did not support him. For Ahaz had stripped the Temple and the palaces of king and nobles and gave it to the king of Assyria, but it did not help him,” after he had heard the prophet say “It shall not continue and not be.”


At that time (2 Kings 15:30): “Hoshea son of Elah formed a conspiracy against him . . . in the year 20 of Jotham son of Uzziah.” That is year four of Al It is impossible to say so, but the (heavenly) decree was issued in the time of Jotham. Another explanation: Scripture prefers to count for Jotham in the grave rather than for Ahaz living. (2Kings 17:3) “Against him came Salmaneser, the king of Assyria, and Hosea became his servant . . .“; it turns out that Ahaz, the king of Judah, and Hoshea, the king of Israel, were subjects of the king of Assyria for 8 years. In the year 12 of Ahaz (l Chr. 5:26): “The God of Israel raised the spirit of Pul, the king of Assyria, and the spirit of Tilgat Pilneëser, the king of Assyria, and he exiled the tribes of Reuben, Gad, and half of Manasseh …” he took the golden calf at Bethel and returned, to confirm what is said (Hosea 10:6): “It also shall be transported to Assyria.” R. Nahoral said in the name of R. Joshua, here it says (Amos 3:12): “So says the Eternal: Just as the shepherd will save from the mouth of the lion two feet or an earlobe,” these from all of Israel, “like the corner of a couch this teaches us that one in eight was left of them. Where were the remainder of the people? In Damascus, to fulfill what was said (Amos 5:27): “I shall exile you farther than Damascus…”


At that time, when Hoshea son of Elah saw that the golden calves had been taken away he removed the border guards that Jeroboam son of Nebat had set up at the borders not to let anybody do a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. Because for all kings of Israel it says “he went in the ways of Jeroboam son of Nebat and his sins” but about Hoshea it says (2 Kings 17:2): “He did evil in the eyes of the Eternal, only not like the kings of Israel that were before him.” For which reason was their fate sealed in his days to go into exile? Because (before that) they deflected the curse onto their kings as it is said (Hosea 5:3): “I know Ephraim and Israel is not hidden from me …” At that time, when Hoshea saw that the king of Assyria was determined to attack and to exile Israel a third time, he went and sought support from the kings of Egypt. (2 Kings 17:1) “In the year 12 of Ahaz, the king of Judah, did Hoshea son of Elah become king of Israel.” (2 Kings 17:6) “In the year 9 of Hoshea…”, it impossible to say so; did he not become king in the year 4 of Ahaz? Why does Scripture say “in the year 9,” 9 years of his revolt. And so he says (2 Kings 17:4): “The king of Assyria found a conspiracy by Hoshea …” (2 Kings 18:9-10) “In the seventh year of king Hezekiah, that is the seventh year of Hoshea son of Elah the king of Israel, Salmaneser attacked Samaria, besieged it and captured it after three years, in the year 6 of Hezekiah (that is the year nine of Hoshea’s revolt), Samaria was taken.” The king of Assyria deported Israel and removed them from their land. (2 Kings 17:24) “The king of Assyria brought from Babylonia” (Ezra 4:9-10) “from Din, Afarsatach, Erech, Babylon, Shushan that is Elam and from the rest of the peoples” (2 Kings 17:24) “they inherited Samaria and lived in its cities.”




It was (2 Kings 18:13) “in the year 14 of king Hezekiah, Sennacherib attacked …” Eight years he waited between the first and the, second deportations and eight years between the second and third deportations. He waited another eight years and attacked Judea to confirm what is written (Isa. 8:23): “In the first time, he lightened the land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali, and at the end he will sweep out. R. Joshua son of Korha said: Sennacherib erred a grievous error. (2 Chr. 32:4) “After these happenings of true faith,” at this moment he sent Tartan to Ashdod, (Isa. 20:1) “in the year that Tartan came to Ashdod …” he swept away the Ammonites and Moabites that had helped him when he was besieging Samaria for three years, to confirm what is written (Isa. 16:14): “And now, the Eternal spoke as follows: In three years, the standard contract of a hired man, will the honor of Moab will be despised by all this great multitude, and a few will be left, not mighty. At that time (2 Kings 18:17-18): “The. king of Assyria send Tartan, the Chief Eunuch, and Rabshekah, from Lakhish to king Hezekiah with a big army … There came out to them Eliakim son of Hilkiah, the minister of the royal household…” (2 Kings 19:5-7) “The servants of king Hezekiah came to Isaiah. Isaiah said to them: So you shall say to your master: So says the Eternal, do not be afraid of the words that you have heard, how the boys of the king of Assyria blasphemed me. Behold, I shall give into him a spirit, he will hear some news and return to his land, then I shall fell him be the sword in his


land.” What was the news that he heard? (Isa. 19:9) “He heard about Tirhaqa, the Nubian king, as follows: He went out to make war against you, so he turned back and sent messengers o Hezekiah….” He swept away Shebna, the agent and his group, went to Nubia, took the best of all countries, and came to Jerusalem, to confirm what is written (Isa. 45:14): “The effort of Egypt that is the army of Pharaoh, the king of Egypt, “and the trade of Nubia,” that is Tirhaqa, the king of Nubia, “Sabeans, tall men,” these are their armies, “they shall pass by you,” that refers to Jerusalem, “they shall be yours,” already they are paid to you, “they shall walk after you,” that refers to Hezekiah, “in chains they will pass by,” these are the handcuffs, “to you they shall bow down, to you they shall pray.” They shall proclaim the praise of the Holy One, praise to Him, in your midst and say “Only in you there is a power, none exists except God.” At that moment, (2 Kings 19:17-18): “The king of Assyria send Tartan, the Chief Eunuch, and Rabshekah, from Lakhish to king Hezekiah.... They called on the king. . . .“ (2 Kings 19:20-24) “Isaiah son of Amoz sent to King Hezekiah.. . That is the word that the Eternal said about him… Whom did you abuse and blaspheme .. . Through your messengers you blasphemed the Master.. . I dug and drank strange waters …” (2 Kings 19:35): “It was in that night, the angel of the Eternal went out and slew in the camp of Assyria 185,000 men; they got up in the morning and found them all to be dead corpses,” all kings with their crowns bound to their heads.


Before the fall of Sennacherib, Hezekiah was sick for three days R.Yose says, the downfall of Sennacherib was on the third day of Hezekiah’s sickness and the sun was arrested for him as it stood for Ahaz as it is said (Isa. 38:8): “Behold, I shall turn back the shadow of the sundial …” On that day, Sennacherib traveled 10 way stations (Isa. 10:28-32): “He came to Ayyat . . . they crossed the ford.. . Sing your voice, Bat Gallim, . . . Madmenah moved . . . This day still he wants to stay at Nob.” You find that on that day he traveled through all of them.


In the eleventh year of a Jubilee cycle, in the fourth year of a Sabbatical cycle, Sennacherib attacked, and so he says (Isa. 37:30): “That shall be the sign for you: to eat in the first year aftergrowth,” he attacked just before Passover, so they could not sow and had to eat the late growth of the previous harvest, “in the second year the spontaneous growth,” because the legions had cut down all fruit trees, “but in the third year sow, and harvest, plant vineyards and eat their yields.” That teaches you that only one year was left in the Sabbatical cycle.


After the downfall of Sennacherib, Hezekiah stood up and released the multitudes that came to him in chain-gangs; they accepted on themselves the Kingdom of Heaven, to confirm what is written (Isa. 19:18): “On that day, there will be five cities in Egypt that speak the language of Canaan and swear by the Eternal Sabaoth …” They went and built an altar and sacrificed on it holocaust sacrifices as it is written (Isa. 19:19): “On that day, there will be an altar for the Eternal in the land of Egypt …” They were praying and prostrating themselves in the direction of Jerusalem as it is said (Isa. 45:14): “To you they will bow down, to you they will pray.” Before Sennacherib came did Hezekiah enclose the waters of Gihon as it is said (2 Chr. 32:3): “He took counsel with his ministers and heroes to close in the waters of the wells outside the city, and they helped him.” (2 Chr. 32:30): “He, Hezekiah, closed in the waters of the upper Gihon spring and lead them, westward, subterraneously, to the city of David …” (2 Chr. 29:1): “Hezekiah became king at the age of 25 and reigned 29 years in Jerusalem …”


Manasseh to Jehoiakim


(2 Chr. 33:1, 2 Kings 21:1) “Twelve years old was Manasseh when he became king  …” In his 22nd year was Manasseh exiled to Babylonia’ and the statue of Micah with him as it is said (Jud. 18:30): “The people of Dan put up the statue . . . to the day of the deportation of the land”. (2 Chr. 12) “When he was in straits, he implored the Eternal .“ It turns out that Manasseh repented 33 years before his death.


(2 Chr. 33:21, 2 Kings 21:19) “Twenty-two years old was Amon when he became king and two years he reigned …: (2 Kings 21:20) “He did evil in the eyes of the Eternal, just as Manasseh, his father, had done.” (2 Chr. 33:23) “. . . for he, Amon, increased guilt,” he eliminated the Torah from Israel.


(2 Chr. 34:1, 2 Kings 22:1) “Eight years old was Josiah when he became king and 31 years he reigned in Jerusalem. (2 Kings 22:3) “It was in 18th year of king Josiah …” In that year, the book of the Torah was found in the Temple and in that year had Josiah made repairs to the Temple. There were 218 years from the repairs under Joash until the repairs under Josiah. And why was it necessary to repair so quickly in the days of Joash? (2 Chr. 24:7) “Because of the criminal Athaliah, her sons damaged the House of God …” That year, Josiah repented (2 Kings. 23:25) “and before him there was no king who so wholeheartedly returned to the Eternal…” Josiah hid the Ark as it is said (2 Chr. 35:3): “He said to the Levites, the instructors of all of Israel, the ones holy to the Eternal, put the Holy Ark into the Temple built by Solomon, David’s son, king of Israel, so that it cannot be carried further on the shoulders.” (2 Kings 23:29) “In his days there attacked Pharaoh Necho, the king of Egypt, against the king of Assyria on the river Euphrates; King Josiah went towards him, but he (Necho) had him (Josiah) killed as soon as he (Necho) saw (him).” (2 Chr. 35:21-24) “He (Necho) had sent him messengers, saying: What have I to do with you, king of Judah . . . But Josiah did not turn his face away from him . . . And the archers shot at king Josiah . . . So his servants transferred him to his secondary chariot and brought him to Jerusalem where he died …” Jeremiah composed a funeral dirge about him “The spirit of our life, the anointed of the Eternal, was caught in their pits.


(2 Kings 23:30-3 1) “The people of the land took Jehoahaz son of Josiah, anointed him and made him king instead of his father. Jehoahaz was 23 years old when he became king; he ruled in Jerusalem for 3 months.” (2 Kings 23:33-34): “Pharaoh Necho arrested him at Riblah in the land of Hama. . . Pharaoh Necho appointed as king Eliakim son of Josiah instead of his father Josiah and changed his name to Jehoiakim.” (2 Kings 23:35) “Jehoiakim was 25 years old when he became king and he ruled in Jerusalem for 11 years.” It turns out that Jehoiakim was two years older than his brother. (Jer. 26:1) “At the begin of the rule of Jehoiakim son of Josiah, King of Judah was this word from the Eternal.” (Jer. 25:2) “When Jeremiah, the prophet, spoke to all the people of Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem:” So says the Eternal of Hosts, the God of Israel, (Jer. 25:5) “turn back, each man from his bad way and evil intentions.. .“ He exhorted them many times but they would not listen. He repeated and prophesied for them (Jer. 26:6): ‘1 shall make this Temple like Shiloh.” (Jer. 27:1-8) “At the begin of the rule of Jehoiakim son of Josiah, King of Judah.


So did the Eternal say to me: make yourself fetters and yokes and put them on your neck. And send them to the kings of Edom, Moab, . . . So says the Eternal of Hosts, the God of Israel. . . I created the earth . . . I gave all these lands in the hand of Nebuchadnezzar, the king of Babylon, my servant... And all nations must serve him.. . But the people and country that will not serve him . . . I shall remember that people, says the Eternal, until I finish them off through his hand.” At that time did Jehoiakim kill Uriah as it is said (Jer. 26:22): “They took Uriah away from Egypt and brought him to king Jehoiakim who killed him by the sword. . .“ All that Uriah prophesied also Jeremiah prophesied but (Jer. 26:24) “but the power of Ahiqam son of Shaphan protected Jeremiah.”


(Jer. 46:1-2) “The word of the Eternal was to Jeremiah, the prophet, about the Gentiles, about Egypt, the army of Pharaoh Necho …” In the first year, Nebuchadnezzar conquered Nineveh, in the second he subdued Jehoiakim. (2 Kings 24:1) “Jehoiakim was his vassal for three years, then he turned around and revolted against him.” (2 Kings 24:7) “The king of Egypt did not leave his country any more since the king of Babylonia took all possessions of the king of Egypt from the brook of Egypt to the Euphrates.” In the fourth year of Jehoiakim was the judgment sealed for Israel to exile and for Jerusalem to drink the cup of wine of rage.


Jehoiakim to Zedekiah


(Dan. 1:1): “In the year three of the reign of Jehoiakim, the king of Judah, came Nebuchadnezzar, the king of Babylonia, to Jerusalem and besieged it.” It is impossible to say so since Nebuchadnezzar became king in the year four of Jehoiakim. So why does Scripture say in Jehoiakim’s year three? It must mean the year three of his revolt.


One verse says (Jer. 52:28) “in year seven” and another verse (2 Kings 24:12) “in the year eight (of Nebuchadnezzar).” Why does one verse say year seven and the other year eight? It must mean the year eight since he became king and the year seven after Jehoiakim became his vassal. (Dan. 1:2): “The Lord gave into his hand Jehoiakim and some vessels of the Temple and he brought them to Iraq.” At another place, it says (Jer. 22:19) “The burial of a donkey will be for him, drag and throw outside the gates of Jerusalem.” At a third place, it says (2Chr. 36:6): “He put him into bronze fetters to lead him to Babylon.” This teaches us that as soon as he was arrested, he died in his prison, was taken out and dragged, to confirm what is written “drag and throw.”


(2 Kings 24:14) “He exiled all of Jerusalem and all the ministers, all the able soldiers, 10,000 exiles, all metal workers and all weapon makers; nobody was left but the poor of the land. (Jer. 52:28) ‘That are the people whom Nebuchadnezzar had exiled in his year seven: from Judah 3,023” the rest from Benjamin and the other tribes, 7,000. (2 Kings 24:15) “All of them heroes, trained soldiers”; but what is the heroism in people who are going into exile and what kind of war may people fight that are in held in fetters and given in chains; but one talks about heroes of the Torah as it is said (Ps. 103:20): “Praise the Eternal, all His messengers, strong in power, warriors,…” who were active in the war of the Torah as it is said (Num. 2 1:14): “Therefore, it has been said in the book of the wars of the Eternal: given in a hurricane …” Among them “one thousand metal workers and weapon makers.” “Metal workers” that one of them only was talking at any time and the others listened silently. “Weapon makers” where everybody was sitting before him and learning from him, as it is said (Isa. 22:22): “I shall give the key of the house of David on his shoulders, that he may open and nobody can lock, or he locks and nobody can open.” (2 Kings 24:15): “The leaders of the land,” these are the freemen of Judah and Benjamin and about them says Scripture (Jer. 24:5): “Like these good figs, so I shall recognize for their benefit the deported of Judah whom I have sent to the land of the Chaldeans.”


(2 Chr. 36:9) “Jehoiachin was eight years old when he became king and he reigned in Jerusalem for three months and ten days.” At another place it says (2 Kings 24:8): “Jehoiachin was eighteen years old when he became king and he reigned in Jerusalem for three months.” Why does Scripture say eight years and why eighteen years? He was eight years old when he became king but it was eighteen years after his Divine decree that he should go into exile, and about him did Nebuchadnezzar say: From a bad dog comes no good whelp. Jehoiachin was exiled in the middle of a Jubilee cycle, in the fourth year of a Sabbatical cycle. And so it says (2 Chr. 36:10): “At the turn of the year did king Nebuchadnezzar send and brought him to Babylon, together with the most desirable vessels of the Temple. The most desirable vessels of the Temple are the Holy Ark. (2 Kings 24:17) “The king of Babylonia appointed his uncle Mattaniah in his stead and changed the latter’s name into Zedekiah.” (2 Kings 24:18) “Zedekiah was 21 years old when he became king….”


(Jer. 28:1-3) “It was in that year, at the start of the reign of Zedekiah, king of Judah, in the fourth year, in the fifth month, that Hananiah son of Azzur the prophet said to me … So says the Eternal of Hosts, the God of Israel: I broke the yoke of the king of Babylonia. In another two years I shall return to this place all the Temple vessels …” What made Hanaiah err? The prophecy that Jeremiah had pronounced over Elam, (Jer. 49:35): “Behold, I am breaking the bow of Elam, the mainstay of their power.” (Jer. 28:17) “Hananiah the prophet died in that year, in the seventh month.”


(Jer. 29:1) “This is the text of the scroll that Jeremiah, the prophet, sent from Jerusalem to the elders of the Diaspora …” (Jer. 29:4-7) “So says the Eternal of Hosts, the God of Israel, to all the deportees … Build houses and well in them, plant gardens and eat their fruits. Take wives and beget sons and daughters … and look after the well-being of the town into which I deported you …” It also says (Jer. 29:10): “Once there are fulfilled 70 years for Babylon, I shall remember you …” In Zedekiah’s fourth year he went to Babylon to appear before Nebuchadnezzar, the king of Babylonia, and Seraiah with him; then he returned and came to his kingdom in Jerusalem




(Ez. 1:1) “It was in the thirtieth year, in the fourth month, on the fifth day …” thirty years after the Book of the Law was found in the Temple. In the fourth year, (Ez. 1:2-3) “on the fifth of the month, that was the fifth year of the exile of king Joiachin. The word of the Eternal was to Ezekiel son of Buzi, the priest, …” (Ez. 3:15) “I came to the deportees at Tel Abib…I sat there seven days speechless among them.” After seven days it was said to him (Ez. 4:4-5): “Lie on your left hand side and put the sin of the house of Israel onto it … And I shall give onto you the years of their sins by the number of days, 390 days …”; that proves that Israel were enraging the Holy One, Praised be He, 390 years from the time they  entered the land until they left it. (Ez. 4:6): “When you will have finished these, lie a second time on your right hand side and carry the sin of the house of Judah for 40 days...” this teaches that for forty years the house of Judah were enraging the Holy One, Praised be He, from the time the Ten Tribes were exiled to the destruction of Jerusalem, 430 years in all. (Ez. 8:1) “It was in the sixth year, in the sixth month, on the fifth of the month when I was sitting in my house and the elders of Judah were sitting before me,” that proves that the year was intercalary, “when the hand of the Eternal fell upon me there.” At that time, the Omnipresent showed to Ezekiel how God’s glory was departing from the Temple. (Ez. 10:19) “The Cherubim lifted their wings and ascended from the earth …” and it is said (Ez. 11:23): “The glory of the Eternal went up, away from the midst of the city …” You find that God’s Glory moved ten times in all.


 (Ez. 20:1-4) “It was in the Seventh year, in the fifth month, on the tenth of the month, there came men from the elders of Israel. . . And the word of the Eternal was to me: Son of man speak to the elders of Israel . . . did you come to seek me? Judge them, tell them the abominations of their forefathers. At that time, Zedekiah (Jer. 34:8-9) “concluded a covenant with the entire people . . . that everyone should free hi Hebrew slave... .“ (Jer. 34:11) “And they turned around and returned the slaves and bondmaids that they had freed, an forced them to be slaves and bondmaids.” About that he said (Jer. 34:18): “The calf, that they had split into two and passed between its pieces” in order to rebel against the Omnipresent. You will say, these (the covenanters) and those (who broke the covenant) were in rebellion against the Omnipresent. At that time did Zedekiah rebel against the king of Babylonia and leaned on the kings of Egypt. You may say these ( Israel) leaned on the kings of Egypt and those (Judah) leaned on the kings of Egypt. Both these and those were exiled in three successive deportations. Both these and those suffered three years of siege. Both these and those ate the flesh of their sons and daughters. And so is says (Ez. 23:3 1): “You (Jerusalem) went in the ways of your sister (Samaria), so I gave her cup into your hand.” In the eighth year of Zedekiah did the army of the king of Babylonia against Jerusalem (Jer. 37:5) “and the army of Pharaoh left Egypt …” swept over Gaza, and returned to Egypt.


(Ez. 24:1-2) “The word of the Eternal was to me in the ninth year, in the tenth month, on the tenth of the month: Son of man, note down the name of this day, on this exact day did the king of Babylonia invest Jerusalem. On this same day, the Tenth of Teveth. (Ez. 29:1-2) “In the tenth year, in the tenth month, on the twelfth of the month, was the word of the Eternal to me: Son of man, put your face against Pharaoh, the king of Egypt, and prophesy about him and all of Egypt. (Jer. 32:6-7): “Behold, Hanamel, the son of your uncle Shallum will come to you, saying: buy for yourself my field in Anathoth, because yours is the duty of redemption, to buy. And Hanamel, my uncle’s son, came to me, according to the Eternal’s word, to the courtyard of the jail, and said to me: please, buy my field in Anathoth, in the land of Benjamin, because yours is the right of inheritance and redemption . . . and I knew that this was the Eternal’s word.”


(Ez. 30:20-21) “It was in the eleventh year, in the first month, on the seventh of the month, that the Eternal’s word was to me: Son of man, I broke the arm of Pharaoh, the king of Egypt …” (Ez. 31:1-2) It was in the eleventh year, in the third month, on the first of the month, that the Eternal’s word was to me: Son of man, say to Pharaoh and his multitude, to whom did you compare yourself in your greatness …” (Ez. 26:1-2) It was in the eleventh year, on the first of the month, that the Eternal’s word was to me: Son of man, because Tyre said about Jerusalem hey, it is broken, the gates of peoples I shall turn to me, I shall fill the destruction …” On the third of Tishre, 52 days after the destruction of the Temple was Gedaliah son of Ahikam son of Shaphan and the Jews that were with him slain at Mizpah; the remainder of the escapees went to Egypt and Jeremiah and Baruch with them.


(Ez. 33:2 1) “It was in the twelfth year of our exile, in the tenth month, on the fifth of the month, there came to me the escapee from Jerusalem saying, the city had fallen.” (Ez. 32:1- 2) “It was in the twelfth year, in the twelfth month on the first of the month, that the Eternal’s word was to me: Son of man, declaim a dirge about Pharaoh, king of Egypt, and say to him, you imagined yourself as you lion among the Gentiles …” (Ez. 32:17-18) “It was in the twelfth year, on the fifteenth of the month, that the Eternal’s word was to me: Son of man, wail about the multitude of Egypt and bring it down …” At that moment, the Holy One, Praise to Him, showed Ezekiel that the Gentiles are condemned to the pit of destruction.


In the 23rd year of Nebuchadnezzar was Tyre given in his hand; he swept out all the Jews that were in Ammon, Moab, and in countries bordering on the Land of Israel, 745 souls. In the 27th year of Nebuchadnezzar was Egypt given in his hand, he plundered its plunder, collected its booty, and his army made itself be paid. He exiled Jeremiah and Baruch to Babylon. (Ez. 40:1) “In the twenty-fifth year of our exile, on New Year’s Day, on the tenth of the month, fourteen years after the City had fallen, on this same day, was on me the hand of the Eternal and brought me there.” At that moment, the Holy One, Praise to Him, showed to Ezekiel in a vision the shape of the Temple of the future.


The Fall of Jerusalem


(Jer. 52:4-11) “In the ninth year of his reign, in the tenth month on the tenth of the month, came Nebuchadnezzar and all his army against Jerusalem, camped around it and built a siege-dam around it. The city came into siege until the eleventh year of king Zedekiah. In the fourth month, on the ninth of the month, did hunger overpower the city and there was no bread for the ruling class. The city was breached and all the soldiers fled and left the city in the night through the gate between the double walls by the king’s garden, while the Chaldeans were around the city, and they took the road to the arid plain. The army of the Chaldeans pursued the king and caught up with Zedekiah in the arid plain of Jericho; then all his army scattered away from him. They arrested the king and transported him to the king of Babylonia at Riblah in the land of Hamah, who passed judgment upon him. The king of Babylonia killed all sons of Zedekiah before his eyes, also all the ministers of Judah he killed at Riblah. The eyes of Zedekiah he blinded, he had him bound with brass fetters; the king of Babylonia brought him to Babylon and put him under house arrest until the day of his death.”


All of 28 days he was picking and flattening on the mountain, and so it says (2 Kings 25:8): “In the fifth month, on the seventh of the month, that is year 19 of Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylonia, came Nebuzaradan, the chief cook, servant of the king of Babylonia, to Jerusalem.” At another place, it says (Jer. 52:12): “On the tenth of the month,” and it says (Jer. 52:29): “In year 18 of Nebuchadnezzar.” Why does Scripture say 19 and why 18? 19 years of his reign and 18 years since he subdued Jehoiakim. Why does Scripture say the seventh of the month and why the tenth? And if it was the tenth, why is the seventh mentioned? Say then that the Gentiles entered the Temple on the seventh, took away the basin, its foundations, and the pillars, and were picking in it the seventh, eighth, and nineth until evening as it is said (Jer. 6:4): “Start against it (Jerusalem) war, get up and attack . . . woe us because the day is turning, the evening shadows are lengthening.” At nightfall they set fires and the Temple was burned on the tenth. About that generation it had been said (Deut. 3 1:21): “Certainly, I (God) know its evil intentions. . . before I shall bring them to the land that I had sworn to them.” It also says (Deut. 31:27): “Certainly, I (Moses) know your rebelliousness . . ,“ (Deut. 31:29) “Certainly, I know that after my death you will degenerate …” And so it says about Zedekiah (2 Chr. 36:13- 21): “Also, he revolted against king Nebuchadnezzar who had let him swear by God … Also the leaders of the priests and the people were exceedingly faithless … But the Eternal, the God of their forefathers, sent to them by his messengers, early to rise and to be sent … But they insulted the messengers of God, were contemptuous of his word, and making fun of his prophets ... The king of the Chaldeans attacked them... And all the vessels of the Temple … he brought to Babylon … He burned the Temple and the palace … And exiled those who remained from the sword to Babylonia … To fulfill the word of the Eternal through Jeremiah, until the land had enjoyed its Sabbatical years, all the years that it was desolate it rested, to fulfill seventy years.


Rebbi Yose says: For 52 years nobody was passing by Judah as it is said (Jer. 9:9): “About the mountains I lift my voice in cry and wail, on the oases of the wilderness in dirges, because they have been destroyed so that no one passes by, they do not hear the noise of animals; from the birds of the sky to animals they moved away.” Rebbi Yose says: Seven years was that verse fulfilled in the land of Israel (Deut. 29:22) “Sulfur and salt, burned is all its land, it cannot be sown and nothing will grow …” (Jer. 52:27) “The king of Babylonia slew them and killed them . . . and exiled Judah from its land,” (Jer. 52:29) “832 souls.” Three deportations, 4600, and from Benjamin and other tribes 7000 that went into exile with Jehoiachin.




(Dan. 2:1) “In year two of the reign of Nebuchadnezzar, his spirit pounded inside him and his sleep fell on him.” It is impossible to say so, but Scripture counts the years after the destruction of the Temple and months after the destruction of the Temple. Similarly, it says (Jer. 52:31): “It was in year 37 of the exile of Jehoiachin, king of Judah, in the twelfth month on the 25th of the month.” Another verse says (2 Kings 25:27): “27th.” Why does Scripture say 25th and 27th? But on the 25th his accuser Nebuchadnezzar died and was buried, on the


26th, Evil-Merodakh removed him from his grave and dragged him through the streets in order to annul his decrees, to fulfill what is written (Isa. 14:19): “You have been thrown from your grave like a despised shoot …”; on the 27th he freed Jehoiachin. At that time, Zedekiah died and they eulogized him: “Woe that king Zedekiah died who drank the dregs for everybody”; to fulfill what is written (Jer. 34:5): “You shall die in peace …” One will say that anybody in luck should never forget the possibility of bad luck and anybody unlucky should never give up hope for luck. From whom do we know, from Jehoiachin and Zedekiah. Nebuchadnezzar ruled 45 years, his son Evil-Merodakh 23 years, the latter’s son Beishazzar 3 years.


(Dan. 7:1) “In year one of Belshazzar, the king of Babylonia, did Daniel have a dream …” (Dan. 8:1) “In year three of king Beishazzar, I Daniel, had a vision …” (Dan. 5:1-6) “King Beishazzar made a big dinner . . . Beishazzar said under the influence of wine, to bring the silver and gold vessels that his ancestor Nebuchadnezzar had brought from the Temple of Jerusalem . . . Then the golden vessels were brought . . . and from them drank the king and his nobles, his wife and concubines. They drank wine and praised gods of gold and silver . . . At that time, there came out fingers of a human hand and wrote . . . Upon that, the king’s face changed …” (Isa. 21:8) “The lion calls: I am standing on the Lord’s watch....” (Isa. 21:11-12) “Assertion about Dumah: To me it calls from Seir, watchman, what will be after the night, watchman, what will be after the night?” Who is the watchman? He is the Holy One, praise to Him, as it is said (Ps. 121): “Behold, the Watcher over Israel never slumbers nor sleeps . . . The Eternal may preserve you from all evil …” and the entire psalm. What does the prophet mean? That the rule of one people does not overlap with that of another people, nor the rule of one government with that of another government, but a government whose time has expired during the day will fall during the day and that whose time has expired during the night will fall during the night, and so it is said (Ez. 30:16,18): “The enemies will come over Noph by day ... At Tahpanhes the day will become dark …” And it says (Dan. 5:30): “During that night, Belshazzar, king of the Chaldeans, was killed.”


(Dan. 6:1) “Darius the Mede received the kingdom when he was 62 years old.” What does the verse intend with the information that he was 62 years old? That on the day that Nebuchadnezzar entered the Temple in the days of Jehoiachin, his adversary Darius was born. Similarly, on the day that Jehu was anointed at Ramoth Gilead, his adversary Hazael was anointed. These are 70 years since Nebuchadnezzar’s accession, and 69 years since he conquered Jehoiakim. (Dan. 9:1) “In year one of Darius son of Ahasuerus from the seed of Media …” You do not find any year of rule for Media in Scripture except this one. And so Jeremiah told Israel (Jer. 51:46): “That your heart should not be weakened by the news that is heard in the land,” that refers to Beishazzar, “oppression in the land,” on Jerusalem, “a ruler,” that is Cyrus the Persian.


(Dan. 11:1-2) “But I, in the first year of Darius the Mede, kept my stand to strengthen and help him. And now I shall tell y the truth; behold, another three kings will arise for Persia,” that refers to Cyrus, Ahasuerus, and Darius who built the Temple, “and the fourth will be the richest of them all.” What does Scripture mean by “fourth,” fourth for Media, as it is said (Dan. 1:21): “Daniel lasted until the first year of king Cyrus.” At that time, it was said to him (Dan. 9:23-25): “At the start of your prayers, the word went out, and I came to tell you …


Seventy sabbatical periods it was decided about your people and your holy city to eliminate crime, seal sins, and forgive transgression, and to bring permanent justice; to end vision and prophecy and to anoint the Holiest of Holies. You shall know and understand from the result of the word, to rebuild Jerusalem under the anointed leader, seven sabbatical periods; and 62 sabbatical periods it shall be rebuilt wide and fortified in times of danger.” Seven sabbatical periods they spent in exile and then returned. 62 sabbatical periods they spent in the Land and one sabbatical period partially in the Land a partially outside it. (Dan. 9:26-27) “After 62 sabbatical periods the anointed will be eliminated; a dominant people will destroy the holy city, its end in a flood, and to the end of war destruction is decreed. For one sabbatical period the covenant of the many will prevail, but for half a sabbatical period he will abolish sacrifice and offering, on the wing of a abomination of devastation, until decreed total ruin is poured out on the devastator.”


R. Yose said, 70 sabbatical periods from the destruction of the first Temple to the destruction of the second Temple; 70 (years) in its destruction and 410 [420] when it was rebuilt. And why does scripture say, 70 weeks? That the Divine decree was before the 70 years. Similarly, says (Gen. 6:3): “… his days shall be 120 years.” And it says (Gen. 7:3): “In year 600 of Noah’s life …” It is impossible to say so; but the Divine decree was issued 120 years before. Similarly, it says (Isa. 7:8): “In another 65 years, Ephraim will no longer be a people.” That was in year four of Ahaz. It is impossible to say so, but the Divine decree was issued in the time of Amos, two years before the earthquake, as it is said (Amos 7:11): “So said Amos, Jeroboam will die by the sword and Israel will certainly be exiled from its land.”


Ezra and Esther


(Ezra 1:1-3) “In year one of Cyrus, king of Persia, when the word of the Eternal through Jeremiah was fulfilled, did the Eternal enlighten the spirit of Cyrus, king of Persia. He had a public announcement made in all his kingdom and also by letter, as follows: “So says Cyrus, king of Persia: All kingdoms of the earth the Eternal gave to me, the God of Heaven, and he ordered me to build for Him a Temple in Jerusalem that is in Judah. Anyone among you from all his people, may his God be with him and may he return to Jerusalem in Judah.” (Ezra 1:5) “The heads of the families of Judah and Benjamin, the priests and Levites, supported everybody whose spirit was enlightened by God to return and build the Temple of the Eternal in Jerusalem.” (Ezra 2:64-65) “All the community together, 42,360. In addition, their male and female slaves, 7,337 …” These numbers are the totals; the sum of the details is only 29,450. Where are the missing 12,360? These are the returnees from the other tribes. (Ezra 3:3) “They prepared the altar on its foundation while they were afraid of the Gentiles …” (Ezra 3:7) “They gave money to the stone masons and metal workers, food, drink, and oil to the Sidonians and Tyrians to deliver to them cedars to the harbor at Jaffa, following the permit issued to them by Cyrus, king of Persia.” Cyrus ruled incomplete three years. (Ezra 4:6) “In the reign of Ahasuerus, at the start of his reign, they wrote accusations against the inhabitants of Judah and Jerusalem.” (Ezra 4:24) “In the meantime, the work at the Temple in Jerusalem stopped and was idle until year two of Darius, king of Persia.”


(Esther 1:3) in the year 3 of his (Ahasuerus’s) reign he made a feast …” For four years, Esther was hidden in the fortress Susa. (Esther 2:16) “Esther was taken to the king, to his palace, in the tenth month, that is Tevet, in the seventh year of his reign.” For five years, Haman amassed riches for Mordecai. (Esther 3:7) “In the first month, that is Nisan, in the year 12 of king Ahasuerus, they threw the lot before Haman …” On the 13th of Nisan did Haman write letters (Esther 3:13) “to destroy and kill all Jews …” On the 15th of Nisan did Esther appear before the king. On the 16th of Nisan was Haman hanged. On the 23rd of Nisan did Mordecai write to countermand the missives of Haman. On the 13th of Adar (Esther 9:5) “did the Jews slay all their enemies,” (Esther 9:12) “and in the fortress Susa the Jews slew 500 men” and they hanged the ten Sons of Haman who had written incitements against the inhabitants of Judah and Jerusalem. (Esther 9:11) “On that day, the king was informed of the number of the slain.” About the same time the next year it is said (Esther 9:29) “Queen Esther and the Jew Mordecai wrote…”


Lo, it says (Jer. 29:10): “When Babylon will have filled 70 years I shall remember you and fulfill My good word to return you to this place”; (Dan. 9:2) “I checked the books for the number of years, about which the word of the Eternal was to the prophet Jeremiah, that 70 years were fulfilled since the destruction of Jerusalem.” Israel was 52 years in the kingdom of the Chaldeans, then they were remembered and returned, three years in the reign of Cyrus, 14 of Ahasuerus, and in the second year of Darius the Temple was built. And so says Zachariah (Zach. 1:12): “The angel of the Eternal declaimed and said: O Eternal of Hosts, until when will you not have mercy on Jerusalem and the cities of Judah, about which You are angry now these 70 years.” The Temple was built for four years as it is said (Ezra 6:15): “This temple was finished at the third of Adar in the year six of the reign of Darius.” At the same time the next year did Ezra come up from Babylon and other deportees with him as it is said (Ezra 7:6-10): “He is Ezra, who came from Babylon, a scribe quick in the Torah of Moses that the Eternal, the God of Israel had given… There came from the Israelites and from the priests, Levites (singers, doorkeepers), and temple servants to Jerusalem, in the seventh year of king Artaxerxes. He arrived at Jerusalem in the fifth month of the king’s seventh year. Really, of the first of the first month was the begining of the voyage from Babylon, and on the first of the fifth month he came to Jerusalem since the hand of the Eternal was good over him. Because Ezra had concentrated on studying the Torah of the Eternal, to do and to teach laws and judicial rules in Israel.” He came to separate Israel from the foreign wives.


Nehemiah  to the end of the 2nd Temple


(Neh. 1:1) ‘The words of Nehemiah son of Hakhaliah …” Twelve years he was in the land of Israel, repairing the wall and returning every man to his town and his inherited land. And so it says (Neh. 13:6): “When all this happened, I was not in Jerusalem because in the year 32 of Artaxerxes I came to the king and after one year I took leave from the king.” From year 20 to year 32 are 12 years. Behold, it says (Ezra 6:14): “The elders of the Jews did build and were successful, following the prophecy of the prophet Haggai, and Zachariah son of Iddo; they built and perfected by the order of the God of Israel and by the order of Cyrus, and Darius, and Artaxerxes, the king of Persia. You find only two Persian kings, Cyrus and Darius, and for Media Darius and Ahasuerus. But Cyrus is Darius is Artaxerxes, since the kingdom was called Artaxerxes. The kings of Media and Persia ruled for a total of 210 years. [210 or 52 or 250]


(Neh. 7:73-8:1) “The priest, Levites (gate keepers and singers), from the people, and Temple servants, and all of Israel lived in their towns; there arrived the Seventh Month and all of Israel were in their towns. Then all the people assembled spontaneously on the plaza that was before the water gate; they told Ezra the sopher to bring the book of the Torah of Moses that the Eternal had commanded to Israel.” And it says (Neh. 8:17): “All the congregation that had returned from captivity made tabernacles. They lived in tabernacles, because the children of Israel had not done so since the days of Joshua son of Nun until that day.” It is impossible to say so; but he brackets their coming in the time of Ezra with the coming in the time of Joshua. Just as in the time of Joshua they became obligated for tithes, Sabbatical and Jubilee years and they sanctified walled cities and were happy before the Omnipresent, similarly at their coming in the time of Ezra as it is said (Neh. 8:17): “The joy was exceedingly great.” And so it says (Deut. 30:5): “The Eternal, your God, will bring you to the land that your fathers had inherited and you shall inherit it.” He brackets your inheritance with that of your forefathers. Just as the inheritance of your forefathers implies the renewal of all these things so also your inheritance implies the renewal of all these things. I could think that you will have a third inheritance, the verse says “you shall inherit it,” a first and second you have, you do not have a third inheritance.


(Dan. 8:21) “The horned ram, that is the king of Greece; the mighty horn that is between his eyes, that is the first king.” (Dan. 11:3-4) “A valiant king will arise … and when he arises, his kingdom will be broken and separated in the four directions of the sky.” That is Alexander the Macedonian who ruled for 12 years. Until that time there were prophets prophesying by the Holy Spirit; from there on (Prov. 22:10) “bend your ear and listen to the words of the wise,” as it is said (Prov. 22:18-19): “How pleasant if you will preserve them in your body ... that your trust shall be in the Eternal.” And it is said (Prov. 22:20-21): “Behold, I wrote for you triple … to tell you the trustworthiness of true teachings.” And so it says (Deut. 32:7): “Ask your father and he will tell you, your elders and they will inform you.” I could think of old men from the market place, the verse says “they will inform you.” From this you learn that an elder is a man who has acquired wisdom.


R. Yose says: The Persian empire existed during the time of the Temple for 24 years. The kingdom of the Greeks 180 years. The kingdom of the Hasmoneans 103 years. The kingdom of Herod 103 years. After that start counting after the destruction of the Temple. And in Babylonia one writes in the Seleucid era 1,000. The following are the eight kings of the Greeks: Alexander the Macedonian, Antipatros, Ptolemy, Seleukos, Sntrvq?, Antonius, Antiochos, Gaius Caligula. From the war of Varus to the war of Vespasian 80 years. These were during the time of the Temple. From the war of Vespasian to the war of Quietus 24 years. From the war of Quietus to the war of Ben Koziba 16 years. The war of ben Koziba two and one half years; that was 22 years after the destruction of the Temple. {this section is very badly preserved}


R. Yose says: A day of rewards attracts rewards and a day of guilt attracts guilt. You find it said that the destruction of the first Temple was at the end of Sabbath, at the end of a Sabbatical year, when the priests of the family of Yehoiariv was officiating, on the Ninth of Ab, and the same happened the second time. Both times the Levites were standing on their podium and sang. Which song did they sing? (Ps. 94:23) “He repaid them for their evil deeds …” The city wall was breached on the Ninth of the Fourth month the first time and on the Seventeenth the second time.


(Ps. 106:48) “Praised be the Eternal, the God of Israel, from one world to the next world; the entire people said: Amen, Hallelujah!” (Ps. 72:18-19) “Praised be the Eternal, God, the God of Israel, Who alone creates wonders. Praised be His glorious name forever; may His glory be filling all the earth, Amen, Amen.” (Dan. 2:21) “He changes seasons and times,” seasons that is the season of Sodom, times is the time of Jerusalem, may be soon rebuilt, Amen. “He deposes kings,”, that refers to Joiakim, “and appoints kings,” that refers to Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylonia. “He gives wisdom to the wise,” that refers to our teacher Moses, the greatest sage with the greatest understanding. “And understanding to those who know understanding,” that refers to Joshua son of Nun as it is said (Deut. 34:9): “And Joshua son of Nun was filled with the spirit of wisdom ...” Another explanation: “He gives wisdom to the wise,” that refers to Joseph, the just, as it is said (Gen. 41:39):


 “There is nobody insightful and wise as you are.” “And understanding to those who know understanding,” that refers to Daniel and his companions as it is said (Dan. 2:19): “Now the secret was unveiled to Daniel in a nightly vision.” (Dan. 2:22) “He unveils the deep and mysterious”; deep refers to the depth of the Heavenly Chariot, mysterious that is Creation. “He knows what is in darkness,” that is the punishment of sinners in hell; “but light dwells with him,” that is the rewarding of just people in the future world. Another explanation: “He gives wisdom to the wise,” that refers to Joshua bin Nun as it is said (Deut. 34:9): “And Joshua son of Nun was filled with the spirit of wisdom ...” “And understanding to those who know understanding”, that refers to Jeremiah, as it is said (Jer. 1:5): “Before I created you in the womb I did know you.” I could think that this was just in his time, but Scripture says (Gen. 5:1): “This is the book of the descent of man.” This teaches us that the Holy One, praise to Him, showed Adam every generation and its leaders, every generation and its prophets, every generation and its seekers, every generation and its judges; the sages of every generation, the prophets of every generation, the just of every generation, the number of their years, the count of their days, the computation of their hours, the sum of their steps, as it is said (Job 34:16) “Certainly, now You are Counting my steps …” and it says (2 Sam. 7:19): “And that was a little thing in the eyes of the Eternal, God; You decreed about the dynasty of Your servant from far away.” And it says (Ps. 139:15-17): “My unformed body was seen by Your eyes; in your ledger they are all written down, their days bundled before one of them was. Regarding me, how dear are Your friends, o Powerful; how many are their heads! If I would count them, they would be more than sand!”


We shall return to you, Tanna of Seder ‘Olam!



Seder Olam Time Line








Birth of Isaac






First Temple foundation laid


First Temple dedication




First Temple destroyed  by Nebuchadnezar