Eschatological Types

By Rabbi Dr. Hillel ben David (Greg Killian)



In this paper I would like to study ‘types’ in the TaNaK[1] which will help us to learn how HaShem’s people are to be gathered back to the land of Israel.


The first ‘type’ to be examined is the story of Abraham when he went to get a wife for his son, Isaac. The story begins with Abraham and Isaac going to Moriah for a sacrifice:


Bereshit (Genesis) 22:1-19 Some time later God tested Abraham. He said to him, “Abraham!” “Here I am,” he replied. Then God said, “Take your son, your only son, Isaac, whom you love, and go to the region of Moriah. Sacrifice him there as a burnt offering on one of the mountains I will tell you about.” Early the next morning Abraham got up and saddled his donkey. He took with him two of his servants and his son Isaac. When he had cut enough wood for the burnt offering, he set out for the place God had told him about. On the third day Abraham looked up and saw the place in the distance. He said to his servants, “Stay here with the donkey while I and the boy go over there. We will worship and then we will come back to you.” Abraham took the wood for the burnt offering and placed it on his son Isaac, and he himself carried the fire and the knife. As the two of them went on together, Isaac spoke up and said to his father Abraham, “Father?” “Yes, my son?” Abraham replied. “The fire and wood are here,” Isaac said, “but where is the lamb for the burnt offering?” Abraham answered, “God himself will provide the lamb for the burnt offering, my son.” And the two of them went on together. When they reached the place God had told him about, Abraham built an altar there and arranged the wood on it. He bound his son Isaac and laid him on the altar, on top of the wood. Then he reached out his hand and took the knife to slay his son. But the angel of HaShem called out to him from heaven, “Abraham! Abraham!” “Here I am,” he replied. “Do not lay a hand on the boy,” he said. “Do not do anything to him. Now I know that you fear God, because you have not withheld from me your son, your only son.” Abraham looked up and there in a thicket he saw a ram caught by its horns. He went over and took the ram and sacrificed it as a burnt offering instead of his son. So Abraham called that place HaShem Will Provide. And to this day it is said, “On the mountain of HaShem it will be provided.” The angel of HaShem called to Abraham from heaven a second time And said, “I swear by myself, declares HaShem, that because you have done this and have not withheld your son, your only son, I will surely bless you and make your descendants as numerous as the stars in the sky and as the sand on the seashore. Your descendants will take possession of the cities of their enemies, And through your offspring all nations on earth will be blessed, because you have obeyed me.” Then Abraham returned to his servants, and they set off together for Beersheba. And Abraham stayed in Beersheba.


Notice that Abraham, Isaac, and two young men leave home for Moriah. They journey together for three days and then they separate into two groups. Abraham and Isaac continue on to Moriah where Abraham attempts to sacrifice Isaac. After the sacrifice, notice that Abraham, alone, returns to his servants. Isaac is missing!


Notice what transportation is being provided by Abraham:


Bereshit (Genesis) 24:1-10 Abraham was now old and well advanced in years, and HaShem had blessed him in every way. He said to the chief servant in his household, the one in charge of all that he had, “Put your hand under my thigh. I want you to swear by HaShem, the God of heaven and the God of earth, that you will not get a wife for my son from the daughters of the Canaanites, among whom I am living, But will go to my country and my own relatives and get a wife for my son Isaac.” The servant asked him, “What if the woman is unwilling to come back with me to this land? Shall I then take your son back to the country you came from?” “Make sure that you do not take my son back there,” Abraham said. “HaShem, the God of heaven, who brought me out of my father’s household and my native land and who spoke to me and promised me on oath, saying, ‘To your offspring I will give this land’--he will send his angel before you so that you can get a wife for my son from there. If the woman is unwilling to come back with you, then you will be released from this oath of mine. Only do not take my son back there.” So the servant put his hand under the thigh of his master Abraham and swore an oath to him concerning this matter. Then the servant took ten of his master’s camels and left, taking with him all kinds of good things from his master. He set out for Aram Naharaim and made his way to the town of Nahor.


From the fact that there are ten camels we deduce that this represents Torah and Mashiach which was represented by the two stone tablets with the ten words.


Isaac will not be seen or mentioned in the TaNaK, until his bride is brought to him, in the land of Israel. This reminds me of what happened with Yeshua. After His sacrifice on Moriah, we will not see Him again until His bride is brought to Him in the land of Israel. Lets look at the passage where Isaac’s bride is brought to him:


Bereshit (Genesis) 24:57-67 Then they said, “Let’s call the girl and ask her about it.” So they called Rebekah and asked her, “Will you go with this man?” “I will go,” she said. So they sent their sister Rebekah on her way, along with her nurse and Abraham’s servant and his men. And they blessed Rebekah and said to her, “Our sister, may you increase to thousands upon thousands; may your offspring possess the gates of their enemies.” Then Rebekah and her maids got ready and mounted their camels and went back with the man. So the servant took Rebekah and left. Now Isaac had come from Beer Lahai Roi, for he was living in the Negev. He went out to the field one evening to meditate, and as he looked up, he saw camels approaching. Rebekah also looked up and saw Isaac. She got down from her camel And asked the servant, “Who is that man in the field coming to meet us?” “He is my master,” the servant answered. So she took her veil and covered herself. Then the servant told Isaac all he had done. Isaac brought her into the tent of his mother Sarah, and he married Rebekah. So she became his wife, and he loved her; and Isaac was comforted after his mother’s death.


This ‘type’ shows me that:



Abraham is a type for HaShem


Eleazer, the servant, is a type for the Holy

Spirit. His name literally means ‘comforter’


Isaac is a type for Yeshua


Rebecca is a type for God’s people


The camels are a type for HaShem’s transportation and riches. The ten camels represent Torah.


So, HaShem will provide the transportation that will carry His bride from her home to the land of Israel where He dwells. His Holy Spirit will gather His bride and assist her in getting to the land. HaShem considers His best riches to be Torah.


Yoseph Son of Yaakov


Now lets search out the messianic significance of the Genesis account of Yoseph son of Yaakov. Yoseph was a type of Mashiach. Yoseph represented Mashiach ben Yoseph and he will also represent Mashiach ben David. This will help us see how HaShem will work in the future.


Mashiach ben Yoseph is seen in the life of Yoseph ben Yaakov until he is removed from the prison by Paro. Mashiach ben David is seen in the life of Yoseph ben Yaakov from the time he is crowned king, second only to Paro.





Hated by his brothers. Genesis 37:4

Hated by His “brothers”

He was a shepherd. Genesis 37:2

He was a shepherd.

He was sent by his father (Yaakov) to check on his brothers. Genesis 37:14

He was sent by His Father (God) to check on his brothers.

Brothers plotted to kill him. Genesis 37:20

“Brothers” plotted to kill Him.

Reuben tried to save him. Genesis 37:21

Some tried to save Him.

His brothers sold Him to the Arabs for 20 pieces of silver. Genesis 37:28

Judas sold Him to the Romans for 30 silver pieces.

Judah conspired against him. Genesis 37:26

Judah’s descendants conspired against Him.

His robe was covered with blood. Genesis 37:31

His robe was covered with blood.

Brothers ate a meal while he was in the pit. Genesis 37:25

His people ate a meal while He was in the pit (Pesach).

“Died” doing his father’s will.

He died doing His Father’s will.

The empty pit caused Reuben concern. Genesis 37:29

His empty pit caused concern.          

Came out of the pit alive. Genesis 37:28

Came out of the grave alive.

Met the spice bearers (Ismaelites).

Met the spice bearers (Miryams).

Did not get his kingdom right away.

Did not get His kingdom right away.

Told his brothers he would rule over them.

Told Pilate he would sit at the right hand.

Began his ministry at 30.

Began His ministry at 30.









Preached HaShem’s word in prison.

Preached HaShem’s word in prison. 1 Peter 3:19

Reigned at the right hand of Pharaoh.

Reigned at the right hand of HaShem.

Was a slave before he became king.

Was a servant before He was the King.

Provided food for his brothers.

Provided food for His “brothers”.

He was the first king of the Jews.

He was the King of the Jews.

Brought his family to where he was dwelling.

Will bring His people to where He dwells.



If this comparison is valid, then we ought to be able to follow Yoseph’s career in Mitzraim to determine what will be when Messiah returns for His second advent:


We see that He will sit at the right hand of power. We see that He will reveal Himself to Judah (Jews) during the second year of a famine following seven prosperous years. We see that Judah will be tested by the King to see if he has learned his lesson.


Note: When Yoseph gathered his family to the land of Goshen, it was the first time that ALL of Israel’s descendants were in the same place. I believe this to be a type of the regathering that HaShem will do for His people, Israel.


If we return to the story of Yoseph in Egypt, we find that Yoseph provided the transportation to the land of Israel:


Bereshit (Genesis) 45:21-28 So the sons of Israel did this. Yoseph gave them carts, as Pharaoh had commanded, and he also gave them provisions for their journey. To each of them he gave new clothing, but to Benjamin he gave three hundred shekels of silver and five sets of clothes. And this is what he sent to his father: ten donkeys loaded with the best things of Egypt, and ten female donkeys loaded with grain and bread and other provisions for his journey. Then he sent his brothers away, and as they were leaving he said to them, “Don’t quarrel on the way!” So they went up out of Egypt and came to their father Yaakov in the land of Canaan. They told him, “Yoseph is still alive! In fact, he is ruler of all Egypt.” Yaakov was stunned; he did not believe them. But when they told him everything Yoseph had said to them, and when he saw the carts Yoseph had sent to carry him back, the spirit of their father Yaakov revived. And Israel said, “I’m convinced! My son Yoseph is still alive. I will go and see him before I die.”


This next passage shows that HaShem will bring Israel back to land using transport provided by HaShem:


Yeshayahu (Isaiah) 66:15-21 See, HaShem is coming with fire, and his chariots are like a whirlwind; he will bring down his anger with fury, and his rebuke with flames of fire. For with fire and with his sword HaShem will execute judgment upon all men, and many will be those slain by HaShem. “Those who consecrate and purify themselves to go into the gardens, following the one in the midst of those who eat the flesh of pigs and rats and other abominable things--they will meet their end together,” declares HaShem. “And I, because of their actions and their imaginations, am about to come and gather all nations and tongues, and they will come and see my glory. “I will set a sign among them, and I will send some of those who survive to the nations--to Tarshish, to the Libyans and Lydians (famous as archers), to Tubal and Greece, and to the distant islands that have not heard of my fame or seen my glory. They will proclaim my glory among the nations. And they will bring all your brothers, from all the nations, to my holy mountain in Jerusalem as an offering to HaShem--on horses, in chariots and wagons, and on mules and camels,” says HaShem. “They will bring them, as the Israelites bring their grain offerings, to the temple of HaShem in ceremonially clean vessels. And I will select some of them also to be priests and Levites,” says HaShem.




It appears that Mashiach, represented by Yoseph, will be providing an all expenses paid trip to the land of Israel for His people. The gathering of Israel is therefore a supernatural event.


* * *


HaShem appointed Israel a kingdom of priests to atone for all these nations, and appointed Jerusalem a house of prayer for all the peoples. Therefore, when Israel came to sacrifice seventy oxen during the seven days of Succoth as an atonement for the seventy nations of the world, they sacrificed thirty-five oxen on behalf of the nations under Ishmael’s dominion, and thirty-five in behalf of those under Esau’s dominion.


The Vilna Gaon discovered this secret hidden in the Torah itself. In the verses describing the number of oxen each day, he noticed that the accompanying sin offering is sometimes referred to as a ‘kid of goats’ and sometimes as just a ‘kid’. Based on the tradition that ‘kid of goats’ refers to Ishmael, he determined that some of the oxen and their respective sin offering correspond to Ishmael, and the others correspond to Esau. Amazingly, the oxen offered on the days whose sin offering is slated as ‘kid of goats’ [days 1,2,4] equals 35 [13+12+10]. Similarly, those offered on the days noted only by ‘kid’ [days 3,5,6,7] also equal 35 [11+9+8+7].


* * *


This study was written by

Rabbi Dr. Hillel ben David

(Greg Killian).

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Rabbi Dr. Greg Killian

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[1] TaNaK is an acronym for: Torah, Neviim, and Ketuvim which translated means: Law, Prophets, and Writings. This the Hebrew term for the “Old Testament”