Who is Yeshua?
Matityahu (Matthew) 16:13-20 When Yeshua came to the region of Caesarea Philippi, he asked his disciples, “Who do people say the Son of Man is?” They replied, “Some say John the Baptist; others say Elijah; and still others, Jeremiah or one of the prophets.” “But what about you?” he asked. “Who do you say I am?” Simon Peter answered, “You are the Mashiach, the Son of the living God.” Yeshua replied, “Blessed are you, Simon son of Jonah, for this was not revealed to you by man, but by my Father in heaven. And I tell you that you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of Hades will not overcome it. I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven; whatever you bind on earth will be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth will be loosed in heaven.” Then he warned his disciples not to tell anyone that he was the Mashiach.
In this passage, Peter declared and Yeshua acknowledged that he is the “Anointed One” (that’s what Mashiach means. “Mashiach“ is another name for one who is anointed), the Son of the living God. So, we can now say that Yeshua is:
The Son of the living God.
At His trial, Yeshua testified under oath, before HaShem, as to Who He was:
Matityahu (Matthew) 26:62-64 Then the high priest stood up and said to Yeshua, “Are you not going to answer? What is this testimony that these men are against you?” But Yeshua remained silent. The high priest said to him, “I charge you under oath by the living God: Tell us if you are the Mashiach, the Son of God.” “Yes, it is as you say,” Yeshua replied. “But I say to all of you: In the future you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of the Mighty One and coming on the clouds of heaven.”
In this passage, Mashiach swears that He is:
The Son of God.
This passage is written at the drash level, at this level we should find the answer to the question: How do we go about establishing HaShem’s Kingdom on earth?
The king held a very special position of honor. He was referred to as God’s “son” in this capacity.
2 Samuel 7:8-14 Now therefore so shalt thou say unto my servant David, Thus saith HaShem of hosts, I took thee from the sheepcote, from following the sheep, to be ruler over my people, over Israel: 9 And I was with thee whithersoever thou wentest, and have cut off all thine enemies out of thy sight, and have made thee a great name, like unto the name of the great men that are in the earth. 10 Moreover I will appoint a place for my people Israel, and will plant them, that they may dwell in a place of their own, and move no more; neither shall the children of wickedness afflict them any more, as beforetime, 11 And as since the time that I commanded judges to be over my people Israel, and have caused thee to rest from all thine enemies. Also HaShem telleth thee that he will make thee an house. 12 And when thy days be fulfilled, and thou shalt sleep with thy fathers, I will set up thy seed after thee, which shall proceed out of thy bowels, and I will establish his kingdom. 13 He shall build an house for my name, and I will stablish the throne of his kingdom for ever. 14 I will be his father, and he shall be my son. If he commit iniquity, I will chasten him with the rod of men, and with the stripes of the children of men.
In this sense, the Yeshua was God’s “Son,” partly because He was / will be God’s appointed King. The king was “God’s anointed”.
Now remember that this is sworn testimony from Yeshua Himself. Notice also that Yeshua is claiming to be someone other than The Mighty One. This testimony is repeated in Mark 14:61.
Others had obviously heard whom Yeshua had claimed to be:
Matityahu (Matthew) 27:35-43 When they had crucified him, they divided up his clothes by casting lots. And sitting down, they kept watch over him there. Above his head they placed the written charge against him: THIS IS YESHUA, THE KING OF THE JEWS. Two robbers were crucified with him, one on his right and one on his left. Those who passed by hurled insults at him, shaking their heads And saying, “You who are going to destroy the temple and build it in three days, save yourself! Come down from the cross, if you are the Son of God!” In the same way the chief priests, the teachers of the law and the elders mocked him. “He saved others,” they said, “but he can’t save himself! He’s the King of Israel! Let him come down now from the cross, and we will believe in him. He trusts in God. Let God rescue him now if he wants him, for he said, ‘I am the Son of God.’”
Yeshua’s testimony was repeated in:
Luqas (Luke) 22:66-70 At daybreak the council of the elders of the people, both the chief priests and teachers of the law, met together, and Yeshua was led before them. “If you are the Mashiach,” they said, “tell us.” Yeshua answered, “If I tell you, you will not believe me, And if I asked you, you would not answer. But from now on, the Son of Man will be seated at the right hand of the mighty God.” They all asked, “Are you then the Son of God?” He replied, “You are right in saying I am.”
At one point, Yeshua was nearly stoned for claiming to be the Son of God:
Yochanan (John) 10:25-36 Yeshua answered, “I did tell you, but you do not believe. The miracles I do in my Father’s name speak for me, But you do not believe because you are not my sheep. My sheep listen to my voice; I know them, and they follow me. I give them eternal life, and they shall never perish; no one can snatch them out of my hand. My Father, who has given them to me, is greater than all; no one can snatch them out of my Father’s hand. I and the Father are one.” Again the Jews picked up stones to stone him, But Yeshua said to them, “I have shown you many great miracles from the Father. For which of these do you stone me?” “We are not stoning you for any of these,” replied the Jews, “but for blasphemy, because you, a mere man, claim to be God.” Yeshua answered them, “Is it not written in your Law, ‘I have said you are gods’? If he called them ‘gods,’ to whom the word of God came--and the Scripture cannot be broken-- What about the one whom the Father set apart as his very own and sent into the world? Why then do you accuse me of blasphemy because I said, ‘I am God’s Son‘?
From this we see that it is important to note that being god is different from being God. I’d suggest that we see god (lower case) as coming from the Hebrew word Elohim, and the word God (capitalized) as coming from the Hebrew YHVH – HaShem (see the study titled :CONUNDRUM). Yeshua (god) is The Word and HaShem (God) is The Speaker of the The Word. Notice, again, that Yeshua claimed to be:
The Son of God.
Mark, in his gospel, also tells us who Yeshua is:
In this passage, Mark claims that Yeshua is:
The Son of God.
So, demons claim that Yeshua is:
The Son of God.
Lets see what other demons said about Yeshua:
Matityahu (Matthew) 8:23-29 Then he got into the boat and his disciples followed him. Without warning, a furious storm came up on the lake, so that the waves swept over the boat. But Yeshua was sleeping. The disciples went and woke him, saying, “Lord, save us! We’re going to drown!” He replied, “You of little faith, why are you so afraid?” Then he got up and rebuked the winds and the waves, and it was completely calm. The men were amazed and asked, “What kind of man is this? Even the winds and the waves obey him!” When he arrived at the other side in the region of the Gadarenes, two demon-possessed men coming from the tombs met him. They were so violent that no one could pass that way. “What do you want with us, Son of God?” they shouted. “Have you come here to torture us before the appointed time?”
The demons repeated this testimony in:
Marqos (Mark) 3:7-12 Yeshua withdrew with his disciples to the lake, and a large crowd from Galilee followed. When they heard all he was doing, many people came to him from Judea, Jerusalem, Idumea, and the regions across the Jordan and around Tyre and Sidon. Because of the crowd he told his disciples to have a small boat ready for him, to keep the people from crowding him. For he had healed many, so that those with diseases were pushing forward to touch him. Whenever the evil spirits saw him, they fell down before him and cried out, “You are the Son of God.” But he gave them strict orders not to tell who he was.
Marqos (Mark) 5:2-9 When Yeshua got out of the boat, a man with an evil spirit came from the tombs to meet him. This man lived in the tombs, and no one could bind him any more, not even with a chain. For he had often been chained hand and foot, but he tore the chains apart and broke the irons on his feet. No one was strong enough to subdue him. Night and day among the tombs and in the hills he would cry out and cut himself with stones. When he saw Yeshua from a distance, he ran and fell on his knees in front of him. He shouted at the top of his voice, “What do you want with me, Yeshua, Son of the Most High God? Swear to God that you won’t torture me!” For Yeshua had said to him, “Come out of this man, you evil spirit!” Then Yeshua asked him, “What is your name?” “My name is Legion,” he replied, “for we are many.”
Luqas (Luke) 1:26-35 In the sixth month, God sent the angel Gabriel to Nazareth, a town in Galilee, To a virgin pledged to be married to a man named Joseph, a descendant of David. The virgin’s name was Mary. The angel went to her and said, “Greetings, you who are highly favored! The Lord is with you.” Mary was greatly troubled at his words and wondered what kind of greeting this might be. But the angel said to her, “Do not be afraid, Mary, you have found favor with God. You will be with child and give birth to a son, and you are to give him the name Yeshua. He will be great and will be called the Son of the Most High. The Lord God will give him the throne of his father David, And he will reign over the house of Jacob forever; his kingdom will never end.” “How will this be,” Mary asked the angel, “since I am a virgin?” The angel answered, “The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you. So the holy one to be born will be called the Son of God.
The Son of God.
Lets look at the testimony of Yeshua’s friends:
Yochanan (John) 11:21-27 “Lord,” Martha said to Yeshua, “if you had been here, my brother would not have died. But I know that even now God will give you whatever you ask.” Yeshua said to her, “Your brother will rise again.” Martha answered, “I know he will rise again in the resurrection at the last day.” Yeshua said to her, “I am the resurrection and the life. He who believes in me will live, even though he dies; And whoever lives and believes in me will never die. Do you believe this?” “Yes, Lord,” she told him, “I believe that you are the Mashiach, the Son of God, who was to come into the world.”
Martha testified that Yeshua is:
The Son of God.
John also testified about Yeshua. John testified:
Yochanan (John) 20:30-31 Yeshua did many other miraculous signs in the presence of his disciples, which are not recorded in this book. But these are written that you may believe that Yeshua is the Mashiach, the Son of God, and that by believing you may have life in his name.
John testified that Yeshua is:
The Son of God.
John repeated this testimony in:
Yochanan (John) 1:29-34 The next day John saw Yeshua coming toward him and said, “Look, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world! This is the one I meant when I said, ‘A man who comes after me has surpassed me because he was before me.’ I myself did not know him, but the reason I came baptizing with water was that he might be revealed to Israel.” Then John gave this testimony: “I saw the Spirit come down from heaven as a dove and remain on him. I would not have known him, except that the one who sent me to baptize with water told me, ‘The man on whom you see the Spirit come down and remain is he who will baptize with the Holy Spirit.’ I have seen and I testify that this is the Son of God.”
1 Yochanan (John) 1:3 We proclaim to you what we have seen and heard, so that you also may have fellowship with us. And our fellowship is with the Father and with his Son, Yeshua Mashiach.
1 Yochanan (John) 3:21-23 Dear friends, if our hearts do not condemn us, we have confidence before God And receive from him anything we ask, because we obey his commands and do what pleases him. And this is his command: to believe in the name of his Son, Yeshua Mashiach, and to love one another as he commanded us.
John also testified that Yeshua was the true God. This is the only place in scripture where this is spelled out:
1 Yochanan (John) 5:20 We know also that the Son of God has come and has given us understanding, so that we may know him who is true. And we are in him who is true--even in his Son Yeshua Mashiach. He is the true God [Judge] and eternal life.
Nathanael also testified as to who Yeshua is:
Yochanan (John) 1:47-49 When Yeshua saw Nathanael approaching, he said of him, “Here is a true Israelite, in whom there is nothing false.” “How do you know me?” Nathanael asked. Yeshua answered, “I saw you while you were still under the fig tree before Philip called you.” Then Nathanael declared, “Rabbi, you are the Son of God; you are the King of Israel.”
Nathanael testified that Yeshua is:
The Son of God.
Paul also testified about Yeshua. Paul testified:
Romans 1:1-4 Paul, a servant of Mashiach Yeshua, called to be an apostle and set apart for the gospel of God-- The gospel he promised beforehand through his prophets in the Holy Scriptures Regarding his Son, who as to his human nature was a descendant of David, And who through the Spirit of holiness was declared with power to be the Son of God by his resurrection from the dead: Yeshua Mashiach our Lord.
Paul testified that Yeshua is:
The Son of God.
Paul repeated this testimony in:
1 Corinthians 1:9 God, who has called you into fellowship with his Son Yeshua Mashiach our Lord, is faithful.
2 Corinthians 1:19 For the Son of God, Yeshua Mashiach, who was preached among you by me and Silas and Timothy, was not “Yes” and “No,” but in him it has always been “Yes.”
Galatians 2:20 I have been crucified with Mashiach and I no longer live, but Mashiach lives in me. The life I live in the body, I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me and gave himself for me.
Now lets see what all of the disciples, in unison, called Yeshua:
Matityahu (Matthew) 14:22-33 Immediately Yeshua made the disciples get into the boat and go on ahead of him to the other side, while he dismissed the crowd. After he had dismissed them, he went up on a mountainside by himself to pray. When evening came, he was there alone, But the boat was already a considerable distance from land, buffeted by the waves because the wind was against it. During the fourth watch of the night Yeshua went out to them, walking on the lake. When the disciples saw him walking on the lake, they were terrified. “It’s a ghost,” they said, and cried out in fear. But Yeshua immediately said to them: “Take courage! It is I. Don’t be afraid.” “Lord, if it’s you,” Peter replied, “tell me to come to you on the water.” “Come,” he said. Then Peter got down out of the boat, walked on the water and came toward Yeshua. But when he saw the wind, he was afraid and, beginning to sink, cried out, “Lord, save me!” Immediately Yeshua reached out his hand and caught him. “You of little faith,” he said, “why did you doubt?” And when they climbed into the boat, the wind died down. Then those who were in the boat worshiped him, saying, “Truly you are the Son of God.”
The disciples said that Yeshua is:
The Son of God.
The centurian who watched Yeshua die also testified as to who Yeshua is:
Matityahu (Matthew) 27:54 When the centurion and those with him who were guarding Yeshua saw the earthquake and all that had happened, they were terrified, and exclaimed, “Surely he was the Son of God!”
Finally, lets see what God Himself testified concerning Yeshua:
Luqas (Luke) 3:21-22 When all the people were being baptized, Yeshua was baptized too. And as he was praying, heaven was opened And the Holy Spirit descended on him in bodily form like a dove. And a voice came from heaven: “You are my Son, whom I love; with you I am well pleased.”
So far the testimony has been remarkably consistent. Everyone agrees on who Yeshua is.
Just as an afterthought, there is only one other person who was ever called “the Son of God”:
One more observation: Nowhere in the Nazarean Codicil is there a Greek word used to translate the tetragrammaton, YHVH.- יהוה, Modern Hebrew translations of the Nazarean Codicil, and surviving Hebrew manuscripts, never use the YHVH name. This means that Yeshua is never associated with the covenantal name of God.
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Ezra-Nechemiah (Nehemiah) 3:9 Then Yeshua arose, (and) his sons and brethren, Kadmiel and his sons, the sons of Judah, as one, to sing before the workers in the Temple of God; also, the sons of Henadad, their Levite sons and brethren.
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I am investigating the claims made about Yeshua. I want to know what is true and what is false. I am going to start this investigation by examining the claims made by Ryrie. I am using the Ryrie study Bible, page 1937, as my reference point. This resourse provides all the reasons why many Christians believe that Yeshua is God (HaShem).
Does Micah 5:1-5, prove that Yeshua preexisted?
Micah 5:1-5 Marshal your troops, O city of troops, for a siege is laid against us. They will strike Israel’s ruler on the cheek with a rod. “But you, Bethlehem Ephrathah, though you are small among the clans of Judah, out of you will come for me one who will be ruler in Israel, whose origins are from of old, from ancient times.” Therefore Israel will be abandoned until the time when she who is in labor gives birth and the rest of his brothers return to join the Israelites. He will stand and shepherd his flock in the strength of HaShem, in the majesty of the name of HaShem his God. And they will live securely, for then his greatness will reach to the ends of the earth. And he will be their peace. When the Assyrian invades our land and marches through our fortresses, we will raise against him seven shepherds, even eight leaders of men.
This passage plainly speaks of someone “whose origins are from old, from ancient times”. The text also indicates that HaShem will be the God of the one whose origins are from old. He also will be a ruler in Israel. It does not say that this is the Mashiach, although one might say that Mashiach is hinted at. Ryrie goes on to indicate that Yeshayahu (Isaiah) 9:6 also speaks of Mashiach’s preexistence:
Yeshayahu (Isaiah) 9:1-7 Nevertheless, there will be no more gloom for those who were in distress. In the past he humbled the land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali, but in the future he will honor Galilee of the Gentiles, by the way of the sea, along the Jordan-- The people walking in darkness have seen a great light; on those living in the land of the shadow of death a light has dawned. You have enlarged the nation and increased their joy; they rejoice before you as people rejoice at the harvest, as men rejoice when dividing the plunder. For as in the day of Midian’s defeat, you have shattered the yoke that burdens them, the bar across their shoulders, the rod of their oppressor. Every warrior’s boot used in battle and every garment rolled in blood will be destined for burning, will be fuel for the fire. For to us a child is born, to us a son is given, and the government will be on his shoulders. And he will be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God (Elohim), Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace. Of the increase of his government and peace there will be no end. He will reign on David’s throne and over his kingdom, establishing and upholding it with justice and righteousness from that time on and forever. The zeal of HaShem Almighty will accomplish this.
Tehillim (Tehillim (Psalms)) 82:6 I have said, Ye [are] gods (Elohim); and all of you [are] children of the most High.
The above verse was quoted by Yeshua in John 10:34 as applying to men.
Shemot (Shemot (Exodus)) 21:6 Then his master shall bring him unto the judges (Elohim); he shall also bring him to the door, or unto the door post; and his master shall bore his ear through with an awl; and he shall serve him for ever.
Shemot (Shemot (Exodus)) 22:7-8 If a man shall deliver unto his neighbour money or stuff to keep, and it be stolen out of the man’s house; if the thief be found, let him pay double. If the thief be not found, then the master of the house shall be brought unto the judges (Elohim), [to see] whether he have put his hand unto his neighbour’s goods.
Thus we understand that Yeshua will rule (as a Judge) and we will rule (as judges) with Him. We will all be Gods (Elohim = Judges).
In Yochanan (John) 1, we have another indicator that Yeshua was living and working before his birth:
Yochanan (John) 1:1-14 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was with God in the beginning. Through him all things were made; without him nothing was made that has been made. In him was life, and that life was the light of men. The light shines in the darkness, but the darkness has not understood it. There came a man who was sent from God; his name was John. He came as a witness to testify concerning that light, so that through him all men might believe. He himself was not the light; he came only as a witness to the light. The true light that gives light to every man was coming into the world. He was in the world, and though the world was made through him, the world did not recognize him. He came to that which was his own, but his own did not receive him. Yet to all who received him, to those who believed in his name, he gave the right to become children of God-- Children born not of natural descent, nor of human decision or a husband’s will, but born of God. The Word became flesh and made his dwelling among us. We have seen his glory, the glory of the One and Only, who came from the Father, full of grace and truth.
While this passage seems conclusive, it could not have been used by the Bereans to prove the preexistence of Mashiach, because this passage had not yet even been written, much less validated as the word of God. This passage is therefore inconclusive.
Ryrie believes that Mashiach’s preexistence is proven by the fact that he was mentioned in this passage:
Shemot (Exodus) 3:1-4 Now Moses was tending the flock of Jethro his father-in-law, the priest of Midian, and he led the flock to the far side of the desert and came to Horeb, the mountain of God. There the angel of the HaShem appeared to him in flames of fire from within a bush. Moses saw that though the bush was on fire it did not burn up. So Moses thought, “I will go over and see this strange sight--why the bush does not burn up.” When HaShem saw that he had gone over to look, God called to him from within the bush, “Moses! Moses!” And Moses said, “Here I am.”
We have, in another paper, already seen that Mashiach did accept the title of “son of God”. We also acknowledged that John 1 seems to indicate that Yeshua was called Logos. I was unable to find any passage that indicates that he is HaShem. HaShem is NEVER used in the Nazarean Codicil, and I was unable to see any indication that Mashiach is HaShem in the Tanakh.
Ryrie believe that the deity of Mashiach is proven by his names: “God”, from:
Bereans (Hebrews) 1:7-10 In speaking of the angels he says, “He makes his angels winds, his servants flames of fire.” But about the Son he says, “Your throne, O God, will last for ever and ever, and righteousness will be the scepter of your kingdom. You have loved righteousness and hated wickedness; therefore God, your God, has set you above your companions by anointing you with the oil of joy.” He also says, “In the beginning, O Lord, you laid the foundations of the earth, and the heavens are the work of your hands.
While it is true that the Greek word “Theos” is used to translate “HaShem”, it is also used to translate other Greek words like “Elokim”, as in:
Yochanan (John) 10:34-36 Yeshua answered them, “Is it not written in your Law, ‘I have said you are gods’? If he called them ‘gods’, to whom the word of God came--and the Scripture cannot be broken-- What about the one whom the Father set apart as his very own and sent into the world? Why then do you accuse me of blasphemy because I said, ‘I am God’s Son’?
In the above passage, Theos is used to translate the Hebrew word Elohim, in Psalm 82:6, which is then used as a term which applies to all of HaShem’s people. The word Theos, therefore, can not be used to prove conclusively that Mashiach is HaShem.
Let’s examine the term, Son of God, and see if it proves that Yeshua is HaShem. In the following verse, Yeshua is called the Son of God:
Matityahu (Matthew) 14:25-33 During the fourth watch of the night Yeshua went out to them, walking on the lake. When the disciples saw him walking on the lake, they were terrified. “It’s a ghost,” they said, and cried out in fear. But Yeshua immediately said to them: “Take courage! It is I. Don’t be afraid.” “Lord, if it’s you,” Peter replied, “tell me to come to you on the water.” “Come,” he said. Then Peter got down out of the boat, walked on the water and came toward Yeshua. But when he saw the wind, he was afraid and, beginning to sink, cried out, “Lord, save me!” Immediately Yeshua reached out his hand and caught him. “You of little faith,” he said, “why did you doubt?” And when they climbed into the boat, the wind died down. Then those who were in the boat worshiped him, saying, “Truly you are the Son of God.”
This seems pretty conclusive until we see some of the other places where this term is used:
In this verse we see that Adam is also called the son of God. Is Adam deity too? We can also note that the most conclusive way to prove that Yeshua is deity, is to prove that he is HaShem. Nowhere is this done, and in several places we see HaShem as a distinct entity which is separate from Yeshua.
The next name that Ryrie uses is “Lord”, in:
Matityahu (Matthew) 23:37-39 “O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, you who kill the prophets and stone those sent to you, how often I have longed to gather your children together, as a hen gathers her chicks under her wings, but you were not willing. Look, your house is left to you desolate. For I tell you, you will not see me again until you say, ‘Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord.’”
When Matityahu (Matthew) says, “Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord”, he is quoting:
“Lord” is a translation of the Greek Kurios, which means “one in supreme authority“. If Yeshua is the one who is coming, then he is not coming in his own name, he is coming in the name of HaShem, as Psalm 118:26 clearly shows. This is like an ambassador who comes in the name of a higher power, a state for example. The ambassador wields the authority of the higher power, yet he is a distinct entity from the higher power. So, Ryrie’s argument does not hold any sway, here.
Ryrie’s next terms are “King of kings”, and “Lord of lords”, as used in:
Revelation 19:11-16 I saw heaven standing open and there before me was a white horse, whose rider is called Faithful and True. With justice he judges and makes war. His eyes are like blazing fire, and on his head are many crowns. He has a name written on him that no one knows but he himself. He is dressed in a robe dipped in blood, and his name is the Word of God. The armies of heaven were following him, riding on white horses and dressed in fine linen, white and clean. Out of his mouth comes a sharp sword with which to strike down the nations. “He will rule them with an iron scepter.” He treads the winepress of the fury of the wrath of God Almighty. On his robe and on his thigh he has this name written: KING OF KINGS AND LORD OF LORDS.
King of kings is not a title which is ascribed exclusively to God:
Ezra-Nechemiah (Nehemiah) 7:11-12 This is a copy of the letter King Artaxerxes had given to Ezra the priest and teacher, a man learned in matters concerning the commands and decrees of HaShem for Israel: Artaxerxes, king of kings, To Ezra the priest, a teacher of the Law of the God of heaven: Greetings.
So, Artaxerxes was also king of kings. This title was not exclusive to God. King Nebuchadnezzar is also called the king of kings by Daniel:
In the following passage, we have an unambiguous statement that HaShem, not Yeshua, is King of kings and Lord of lords:
I Titus 6:13-17 In the sight of God, who gives life to everything, and of Mashiach Yeshua, who while testifying before Pontius Pilate made the good confession, I charge you To keep this command without spot or blame until the appearing of our Lord Yeshua Mashiach, Which God will bring about in his own time--God, the blessed and only Ruler, the King of kings and Lord of lords, Who alone is immortal and who lives in unapproachable light, whom no one has seen or can see. To him be honor and might forever. Amen.
So, we have learned that the title “King of kings” does not always pertain to God. It can also pertain to earthly kings. There are several references to “Lord of lords”, and all of them seem to apply to HaShem:
Tehillim (Psalm) 136:3, 1 Timothy 6:15, Revelation 17:14, and Revelation 19:16.
Unfortunately, in Revelation 19:16, we can not tell that these names apply to the Word of God, or whether he was merely wearing them.
Ryrie next suggests that Yeshua is deity because he is omnipotent according to Matityahu (Matthew) 28:18:
Matityahu (Matthew) 28:16-20 Then the eleven disciples went to Galilee, to the mountain where Yeshua had told them to go. When they saw him, they prostrate themselves in homage to him; but some doubted. Then Yeshua came to them and said, “All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me. Therefore go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, And teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you. And surely I am with you always, to the very end of the age.”
The NIV shows us that it is authority that Yeshua has received, not necessarily power. This reference is too ambiguous to be of any help.
Ryrie indicates that Yeshua was omniscience, according to:
Yochanan (John) 1:47-49 When Yeshua saw Nathanael approaching, he said of him, “Here is a true Israelite, in whom there is nothing false.” “How do you know me?” Nathanael asked. Yeshua answered, “I saw you while you were still under the fig tree before Philip called you.” Then Nathanael declared, “Rabbi, you are the Son of God; you are the King of Israel.”
This passage only indicates that Yeshua could see Nathaniel while he was far away, not that he knows everything. Further, Yeshua, himself, plainly says that he does not know everything, that only HaShem knows everything:
Matityahu (Matthew) 6:8 Do not be like them, for your Father knows what you need before you ask him.
Ryrie now proceeds to assert that Yeshua is omnipresent according to:
Matityahu (Matthew) 18:19-20 “Again, I tell you that if two of you on earth agree about anything you ask for, it will be done for you by my Father in heaven. For where two or three come together in my name, there am I with them.”
This assertion can not be true, unless Yeshua does not have a physical form, if he is not s son of man. I have prayed many times with two or more, in his name, and I have never seen him. He was not physically there. The scriptures plainly indicate that HaShem can be everywhere because He is spirit. We can further corroborate this idea by looking at:
Yochanan (John) 7:33-36 Yeshua said, “I am with you for only a short time, and then I go to the one who sent me. You will look for me, but you will not find me; and where I am, you cannot come.” The Jews said to one another, “Where does this man intend to go that we cannot find him? Will he go where our people live scattered among the Greeks, and teach the Greeks? What did he mean when he said, ‘You will look for me, but you will not find me,’ and ‘Where I am, you cannot come’?”
If Yeshua is omnipresent, then how can he not be where the disciples are? It does not appear that Yeshua is omnipresent. Since he is a man, we would see him, and as a man, he can not be omnipresent.
Ryrie now indicates that Yeshua is deity because he gives life:
Yochanan (John) 1:4 In him was life, and that life was the light of men.
This verse does not indicate anything more than the fact that Yeshua was alive, and that his life gives light to men. I do not see anything that indicates that this is something that can not be done by Mashiach or by angels. I do not see any indication that this is something that can be done exclusively by HaShem.
The next attribute that Ryrie points to, to prove that Yeshua is deity, in truth:
Yochanan (John) 14:6 Yeshua answered, “I am the way and the truth and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me.
Clearly, the above verse separates Yeshua from the Father. This passage clearly indicates that Yeshua is unique, it does not indicate that he is deity.
The last attribute that Ryrie uses to prove the deity of Yeshua, is immutability:
At this point Ryrie begins to use the works of Yeshua to prove his deity. The first work that he points to is his ability to create:
Yochanan (John) 1:1-3 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was with God in the beginning. Through him all things were made; without him nothing was made that has been made.
Mashiach is the creator. It does not say that he created all things, it says that all things were created through him. HaShem spoke the ten sayings, and those words were endowed with the ability to create. HaShem can give anyone, any ability He chooses. The fact that we have an ability, does not make us deity. So it will be for each of the other works that Ryrie uses to prove that Yeshua is deity:
Colosians 1:17 He is before all things, and in him all things hold together.
Luqas (Luke) 5:21-25 The Pharisees and the teachers of the law began thinking to themselves, “Who is this fellow who speaks blasphemy? Who can forgive sins but God alone?” Yeshua knew what they were thinking and asked, “Why are you thinking these things in your hearts? Which is easier: to say, ‘Your sins are forgiven,’ or to say, ‘Get up and walk’? But that you may know that the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive sins....” He said to the paralyzed man, “I tell you, get up, take your mat and go home.” Immediately he stood up in front of them, took what he had been lying on and went home praising God.
Judges: (Moses judged; is he deity?):
Yochanan (John) 5:27 And he has given him authority to judge because he is the Son of Man.
Sends the Holy Spirit:
Yochanan (John) 15:26 “When the Counselor comes, whom I will send to you from the Father, the Spirit of truth who goes out from the Father, he will testify about me.
Next, Ryrie uses worship to prove that he is deity:
Prostration is not the same as worship! When ever we see “worshipped” as it applied to Yeshua, it is always:
4352 proskuneo, pros-koo-neh’-o; from 4314 and a prob. der. of 2965 (mean. to kiss, like a dog licking his master’s hand); to fawn or crouch to, i.e. (lit. or fig.) prostrate oneself in homage (do reverence to, adore):-worship.
Keep in mind that Strong’s uses the colon (:) to terminate the definition and begin displaying the English translation as used in the KJV. So, worship is the translation, in the above definition, not the meaning!
3000 latreuo, lat-ryoo’-o; from latris (a hired menial); to minister (to God), i.e. render religious homage:-serve, do the service, worship (-per).
The word latreuo is defined as “religious homage” as opposed to just prostration.This word, latreuo, is used in all of the following verses. I have underlined the translation to call it to your attention:
Matityahu (Matthew) 4:7-11 Yeshua answered him, “It is also written: ‘Do not put the Lord your God to the test.’” Again, the devil took him to a very high mountain and showed him all the kingdoms of the world and their splendor. “All this I will give you,” he said, “if you will bow down and worship me.” Yeshua said to him, “Away from me, Satan! For it is written: ‘Bow to the Lord your God, and worship him only.’” Then the devil left him, and angels came and attended him.
Notice that the word “only” is applied to latreuo and that proskuneo is also used in the same verse. Notice also that Yeshua does not tell us to bow to Yeshua or to worship Yeshua. It was the perfect opportunity, but Yeshua pointed us to HaShem.
Notice in this next verse that worship belongs to HaShem:
Luqas (Luke) 1:67-75 His father Zechariah was filled with the Holy Spirit and prophesied: “Praise be to the Lord, the God of Israel, because he has come and has redeemed his people. He has raised up a horn of salvation for us in the house of his servant David (As he said through his holy prophets of long ago), Salvation from our enemies and from the hand of all who hate us-- To show mercy to our fathers and to remember his holy covenant, The oath he swore to our father Abraham: To rescue us from the hand of our enemies, and to enable us to worship him without fear In holiness and righteousness before him all our days.
Luqas (Luke) 2:36-38 There was also a prophetess, Anna, the daughter of Phanuel, of the tribe of Asher. She was very old; she had lived with her husband seven years after her marriage, And then was a widow until she was eighty-four. She never left the temple but worshiped night and day, fasting and praying. Coming up to them at that very moment, she gave thanks to God and spoke about the child to all who were looking forward to the redemption of Jerusalem.
Luqas (Luke) 4:4-8 Yeshua answered, “It is written: ‘Man does not live on bread alone.’” The devil led him up to a high place and showed him in an instant all the kingdoms of the world. And he said to him, “I will give you all their authority and splendor, for it has been given to me, and I can give it to anyone I want to. So if you worship me, it will all be yours.” Yeshua answered, “It is written: ‘Worship the Lord your God and serve him only.’”
II Luqas (Acts) 6:15 – 7:7 All who were sitting in the Sanhedrin looked intently at Stephen, and they saw that his face was like the face of an angel. Then the high priest asked him, “Are these charges true?” To this he replied: “Brothers and fathers, listen to me! The God of glory appeared to our father Abraham while he was still in Mesopotamia, before he lived in Haran. ‘Leave your country and your people,’ God said, ‘and go to the land I will show you.’ “So he left the land of the Chaldeans and settled in Haran. After the death of his father, God sent him to this land where you are now living. He gave him no inheritance here, not even a foot of ground. But God promised him that he and his descendants after him would possess the land, even though at that time Abraham had no child. God spoke to him in this way: ‘Your descendants will be strangers in a country not their own, and they will be enslaved and mistreated four hundred years. But I will punish the nation they serve as slaves,’ God said, ‘and afterward they will come out of that country and worship me in this place.’
II Luqas (Acts) 7:37-42 “This is that Moses who told the Israelites, ‘God will send you a prophet like me from your own people.’ He was in the assembly in the desert, with the angel who spoke to him on Mount Sinai, and with our fathers; and he received living words to pass on to us. “But our fathers refused to obey him. Instead, they rejected him and in their hearts turned back to Egypt. They told Aaron, ‘Make us gods who will go before us. As for this fellow Moses who led us out of Egypt--we don’t know what has happened to him!’ That was the time they made an idol in the form of a calf. They brought sacrifices to it and held a celebration in honor of what their hands had made. But God turned away and gave them over to the worship of the heavenly bodies. This agrees with what is written in the book of the prophets: “‘Did you bring me sacrifices and offerings forty years in the desert, O house of Israel?
In this next passage, Paul has an opportunity to tell us to worship Yeshua, instead he himself only worships HaShem:
II Luqas (Acts) 24:10-16 When the governor motioned for him to speak, Paul replied: “I know that for a number of years you have been a judge over this nation; so I gladly make my defense. You can easily verify that no more than twelve days ago I went up to Jerusalem to worship. My accusers did not find me arguing with anyone at the temple, or stirring up a crowd in the synagogues or anywhere else in the city. And they cannot prove to you the charges they are now making against me. However, I admit that I worship the God of our fathers as a follower of the Way, which they call a sect. I believe everything that agrees with the Law and that is written in the Prophets, And I have the same hope in God as these men, that there will be a resurrection of both the righteous and the wicked. So I strive always to keep my conscience clear before God and man.
II Luqas (Acts) 26:1-8 Then Agrippa said to Paul, “You have permission to speak for yourself.” So Paul motioned with his hand and began his defense: “King Agrippa, I consider myself fortunate to stand before you today as I make my defense against all the accusations of the Jews, And especially so because you are well acquainted with all the Jewish customs and controversies. Therefore, I beg you to listen to me patiently. “The Jews all know the way I have lived ever since I was a child, from the beginning of my life in my own country, and also in Jerusalem. They have known me for a long time and can testify, if they are willing, that according to the strictest sect of our religion, I lived as a Pharisee. And now it is because of my hope in what God has promised our fathers that I am on trial today. This is the promise our twelve tribes are hoping to see fulfilled as they earnestly worship God day and night. O king, it is because of this hope that the Jews are accusing me. Why should any of you consider it incredible that God raises the dead?
II Luqas (Acts) 27:21-25 After the men had gone a long time without food, Paul stood up before them and said: “Men, you should have taken my advice not to sail from Crete; then you would have spared yourselves this damage and loss. But now I urge you to keep up your courage, because not one of you will be lost; only the ship will be destroyed. Last night an angel of the God whose I am and whom I worship stood beside me And said, ‘Do not be afraid, Paul. You must stand trial before Caesar; and God has graciously given you the lives of all who sail with you.’ So keep up your courage, men, for I have faith in God that it will happen just as he told me.
Romans 1:7-10 To all in Rome who are loved by God and called to be saints: Grace and peace to you from God our Father and from the Lord Yeshua Mashiach. First, I thank my God through Yeshua Mashiach for all of you, because your faith is being reported all over the world. God, whom I worship with my whole heart in preaching the gospel of his Son, is my witness how constantly I remember you In my prayers at all times; and I pray that now at last by God’s will the way may be opened for me to come to you.
In this verse Paul worships the Creator, which could be construed as either The Word or Elohim:
Romans 1:24-25 Therefore God gave them over in the sinful desires of their hearts to sexual impurity for the degrading of their bodies with one another. They exchanged the truth of God for a lie, and worshiped and served created things rather than the Creator--who is forever praised. Amen.
Philippians 3:2-4 Watch out for those dogs, those men who do evil, those mutilators of the flesh. For it is we who are the circumcision, we who worship by the Spirit of God, who glory in Mashiach Yeshua, and who put no confidence in the Though I myself have reasons for such confidence. If anyone else thinks he has reasons to put confidence in the flesh, I have more:
2 Timothy 1:1-4 Paul, an apostle of Mashiach Yeshua by the will of God, according to the promise of life that is in Mashiach Yeshua, To Timothy, my dear son: Grace, mercy and peace from God the Father and Mashiach Yeshua our Lord. I thank God, whom I worship, as my forefathers did, with a clear conscience, as night and day I constantly remember you in my prayers. Recalling your tears, I long to see you, so that I may be filled with joy.
Bereans (Hebrews) 8:1-6 The point of what we are saying is this: We do have such a high priest, who sat down at the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in heaven, And who serves in the sanctuary, the true tabernacle set up by the Lord, not by man. Every high priest is appointed to offer both gifts and sacrifices, and so it was necessary for this one also to have something to offer. If he were on earth, he would not be a priest, for there are already men who offer the gifts prescribed by the law. They worship at a sanctuary that is a copy and shadow of what is in heaven. This is why Moses was warned when he was about to build the tabernacle: “See to it that you make everything according to the pattern shown you on the mountain.” But the ministry Yeshua has received is as superior to theirs as the covenant of which he is mediator is superior to the old one, and it is founded on better promises.
Bereans (Hebrews) 9:7-15 But only the high priest entered the inner room, and that only once a year, and never without blood, which he offered for himself and for the sins the people had committed in ignorance. The Holy Spirit was showing by this that the way into the Most Holy Place had not yet been disclosed as long as the first tabernacle was still standing. This is an illustration for the present time, indicating that the gifts and sacrifices being offered were not able to clear the conscience of the worshiper. They are only a matter of food and drink and various ceremonial washings--external regulations applying until the time of the new order. When Mashiach came as high priest of the good things that are already here, he went through the greater and more perfect tabernacle that is not man-made, that is to say, not a part of this creation. He did not enter by means of the blood of goats and calves; but he entered the Most Holy Place once for all by his own blood, having obtained eternal redemption. The blood of goats and bulls and the ashes of a heifer sprinkled on those who are ceremonially unclean sanctify them so that they are outwardly clean. How much more, then, will the blood of Mashiach, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself unblemished to God, cleanse our consciences from acts that lead to death, so that we may worship the living God! For this reason Mashiach is the mediator of a new covenant, that those who are called may receive the promised eternal inheritance--now that he has died as a ransom to set them free from the sins committed under the first covenant.
Bereans (Hebrews) 10:1-4 The law is only a shadow of the good things that are coming—not the realities themselves. For this reason it can never, by the same sacrifices repeated endlessly year after year, make perfect those who draw near to worship. If it could, would they not have stopped being offered? For the worshipers would have been cleansed once for all, and would no longer have felt guilty for their sins. But those sacrifices are an annual reminder of sins, Because it is impossible for the blood of bulls and goats to take away sins.
Bereans (Hebrews) 12:28-29 Therefore, since we are receiving a kingdom that cannot be shaken, let us be thankful, and so worship God acceptably with reverence and awe, For our “God is a consuming fire.”
Clearly the above quote comes this passage in the Tanach where HaShem is clearly the subject:
Bereans (Hebrews) 13:9-10 Do not be carried away by all kinds of strange teachings. It is good for our hearts to be strengthened by grace, not by ceremonial foods, which are of no value to those who eat them. We have an altar from which those who worship at the tabernacle have no right to eat.
Revelation 7:13-15 Then one of the elders asked me, “These in white robes--who are they, and where did they come from?” I answered, “Sir, you know.” And he said, “These are they who have come out of the great tribulation; they have washed their robes and made them white in the blood of the Lamb. Therefore, “they are before the throne of God and worship him day and night in his temple; and he who sits on the throne will spread his tent over them.
Revelation 22:1-3 Then the angel showed me the river of the water of life, as clear as crystal, flowing from the throne of God and of the Lamb Down the middle of the great street of the city. On each side of the river stood the tree of life, bearing twelve crops of fruit, yielding its fruit every month. And the leaves of the tree are for the healing of the nations. No longer will there be any curse. The throne of God and of the Lamb will be in the city, and his servants will worship him.
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The following is an excerpt from an Email I responded to:
To begin my answer lets look at a very familar passage and analyze it:
Yochanan (John)1:1 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.
In this passage, Yeshua is referred to as The Word. A word is a collection of sounds uttered by a speaker. The words of a speaker are distinct from the speaker. Who is the speaker in this passage? Bereshit (Genesis) 1:3:
Bereshit (Genesis) 1:3 And Elohim (God) said, Let there be light: and there was light.
The speaker is Elohim. This seems simple till we note what was spoken through Yeshayahu (Isaiah):
Yeshayah (Isaiah) 45:5-8 I [am] HaShem, and [there is] none else, [there is] no God beside me: I girded thee, though thou hast not known me: That they may know from the rising of the sun, and from the west, that [there is] none beside me. I [am] HaShem, and [there is] none else. I form the light, and create darkness: I make peace, and create evil: I HaShem do all these [things]. Drop down, ye heavens, from above, and let the skies pour down righteousness: let the earth open, and let them bring forth salvation, and let righteousness spring up together; I HaShem have created it.
The answer, of course, is that these are two names for HaShem. Elohim is used when judging / creating and HaShem is used when HaShem is exercising the attribute of loving kindness. As simple as this answer is, we have a problem:
Yochanan (John) 1:3 All things were made by him; and without him was not any thing made that was made.
In this passage it says that The Word created everything. So, what is the answer? I will make it clear. Here is what happened: HaShem exercising the attribute of justice (using the name Elohim) spoke. The Word came out of His mouth and created that which HaShem commanded. In this way we see that HaShem created everything by His Word. The Word created that which HaShem commanded. This shows that HaShem and The Word are related, but, The Word is not the speaker, HaShem is the speaker.
Taken together, the arguments presented in this paper prove conclusively that Yeshua is NOT HaShem.
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Sanhedrin 100a, attributes to Rabbi Meir the saying: "The measure which one measures will be measured out to him."
Matthew 7:2 The measure you give will be the measure you get.
Matthew 5:7 Blessed are the merciful, for they shall obtain mercy.
He who is merciful to others, shall receive mercy from Heaven.
--R. Gamaliel Beribbi, 3rd century C.E., Shabbat 151b
Matthew 10:8 Freely you receive, freely give.
--R. Judah, 299 C.E., Bekoroth 29a
Matthew 5:37 Let what you say be simply yes or no.
Let your yes be yes, and your no be no.
--R. Abaye, died 338 C.E., Baba Metzia 49a
Matthew 23:12 Whoever exalts himself will be humbled, and whoever humbles himself will be exalted.
--R. Jeremiah, died 250 C.E., Baba Metzia 85b
Matthew 7:3 Why do you see the speck that is in your brother's eye, but do not notice the beam that is in your own eye?
Do they say, take the splinter out of your eye, he will retort: "Remove the beam out of your own eye."
--R. Johanan, surnamed Bar Napha, 199-279 C.E., Baba Bathra 15b
Matthew 5:10 Blessed are those who are persecuted for righteousness' sake, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.
Be rather of the persecuted than of the persecutors.
--R. Abbahu, 279-310 C.E., Baba Kamma 93a
Matthew 6:31 Do not be anxious, saying, "What shall we eat?" or "What shall we drink?"
Whoever has a piece of bread in his basket and says, "What shall I eat tomorrow?" belongs only to them who are little in faith.
--R. Eliezer, died 117 C.E., Sotah 48b-
Matthew 9.37 The harvest is plentiful, but the laborers are few.
The day is short, and the work is much; and the workmen are indolent, but the reward is much; and the Master of the House is insistent.
--R. Tarfon, 120 C.E., Aboth 2:15
"…it happened that a certain heathen came before Shammai and said to him,'Take me as a proselyte, but on the condition that you teach me the entireTorah, while I stand on one foot.' Shammai instantly drove him away with a builder's measuring rod he happened to have in his hand. When the heathen came before Hillel, Hillel said to him, 'What is hateful to you, do not do to your fellow man. This is the entire Torah. All of it; the rest is commentary. Go ahead and study it.'"
Mark 12:28-31 Then one of the scribes [in Matt. 22:34-40, the Pharisees and Sadducees; in Lk. 10:25-28, a lawyer], who had been listening to these discussions and had observed how well Jesus answered, came forward and asked him, "Which is the first of all the commandments? He answered, 'The first is, 'Hear O Israel: the L-rd our G-d is the one L-rd, and you must love the L-rd your G-d with all your heart, with all your soul, with all your mind, and with all your strength. The second is this: 'You must love your neighbor as yourself.' No other commandment is greater than these.'
"At the approaching of Messiah, insolence will increase and honor will be held in contempt…The young will cause the faces of their elders to go pale, and the great will wait upon those of little worth. A son will revile his father. A daughter will rise up against her mother, a daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law. A man's enemies will be the inmates of his own house."
Luke 12:51-53 … I have come to bring dissension. From now on, a family of five will be divided, three against two and two against three; father against son and son against father, mother against daughter and daughter against mother, mother-in-law against daughter-in-law and daughter-in-law against mother-in-law.
"Abbaye asked Rabbah: What is your reason for not wanting to see him [the Messiah]? Should you say, 'Because of the birth pangs preceeding the Messiah's coming,' have we not been taught: R. Eliezer's disciples asked him, 'What should one do to be spared the pangs of the Messiah?' 'Let him engage in study of Torah and in good deeds.'"
"R. Isaac taught: In the year when the King Messiah reveals himself, all the kings of the nations of the earth will be agitated and frightened; they will fall upon their faces and be seized with pangs like the pangs of a woman in labor."
(PR, Piskas 35-37; Yalkut, Isa., ~499)
John 16:20-21 In very truth I tell you, you will weep and mourn, but the world will be glad. But though you will be plunged in grief, your grief will be turned to joy. A woman in labor is in pain because her time has come; but when her baby is born she forgets the anguish in her joy that a child has been born into the world.
Matthew 2:1-11 Jesus was born at Bethlehem in Judaea during the reign of Herod. After his birth astrologers from the east arrived in Jerusalem, asking, where is the new-born king of the Jews?… they set out… entering the house, they saw the child with Mary his mother and bowed low in homage to him; they opened their treasure chests and presented gifts to him…
Yeshua is the atonement for the Gentiles (the world). In this way He plays the role of Yitzchak (Isaac) when he was bound by Avraham. In the same way that Yitzchak was an atonement for the Jews, so also was Yeshua an atonement for the Gentiles. He was the Lamb of God, He was the sacrificial offering required of all Gentiles as part of the conversion process. He is therefore a replacement for the lamb of conversion which can no longer be brought because the Temple was destroyed. Jews do not need this lamb because they converted at Mt. Sinai in the days of Moses and thus have no need of the conversion lamb.
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This study was written by
Rabbi Dr. Hillel ben David
Comments may be submitted to:
Rabbi Dr. Greg Killian
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 See 2 Samuel 7:14; Psalm 2:7-9
 The so called ‘New Testament’.
 Sotah 49b; Sanhedrin 97a and Ein Ya'akov, as loc.