The Significance Of The Number Five

By Rabbi Dr. Hillel ben David (Greg Killian)


In this paper I would like to study the meaning and the significance of the number five.


The number ten denotes a complete set, because we have ten fingers. Five is therefore representative of half of a set. The following Mishna provides an example of this:




The number five represents the perfection of the natural order (the number four), with the addition of one: HaShem Himself. As the thumb connects the other four fingers, so HaShem connects with the four of this world to perfect the natural order.


The number four is a number of separation, and represents dispersal in all four directions. We see scripture describing division and separation as:


Zechariah 2:10 ...for I have scattered you like the four directions of the heavens.


Each of the four directions is discreet and independent of the others. But, the “fifth” is the unifier, since it resides in the middle of the four directions, and it is the middle element which always unifies the other elements. For this reason, five is called “agudah,” a group, with the fifth unifying the other four. (In order to add a fifth element to the four elements of the plane, that additional one must be placed, conceptually, in the middle. This parallels the structure of the number three being the unifier of the number two, with two representing contrast, and the extremes of a line.) So, the verse “...His group upon the earth” is referring to five, even though no number is mentioned explicitly. Five, a unifier, is fundamentally (not simply quantitatively) different than four which represents division. HaShem is a unifier and a totality, and the unifying power of five is the reason the Divine presence is more manifest among five people.


Four is the number representing exile, and five is the number representing redemption. Five is also the number of fingers that make up the hand.


Five is closely connected with Torah as we have five books which make up the Torah[1] and we have five books of Psalms[2] which are a commentary on those five books of the Torah. The Mishna also connects five with the Torah:




The Torah’s five books contain four books and a fifth which retells the story of the first four. The Midrash also connects five with the Torah:


Leviticus XXX:2 R. Judan said: The Holy One, blessed be He, told David: ‘If you wish for life you need chastisement’; as it is written, Reproofs of instruction are the way of life (Prov. VI, 23). By ‘Fulness of (soba’) joy’ he implied: Satisfy us with five joys; to wit, with Scripture, Mishna, Tosefta, Talmud, and Haggadoth.


Midrash Rabbah - Deuteronomy VII:3 The Torah is compared to five things, water, wine, honey, milk, and oil. Whence to water? [For it is written,] Ho, every one that thirsteth, come ye for water (Isa. LV, 1). Whence to wine? For it is written, And drink of the wine which I have mingled (Prov. IX, 5). Whence to honey and milk? For it is said, Honey and milk are under thy tongue (S.S. IV, 11). Whence to oil? For it is said, Thy name as ointment [oil] poured forth (ib. I, 3). Just as oil is at first bitter but in the end sweet, so too are the words of the Torah; at first a man has to labour in them, but in the end he benefits by them, as it is said, And though thy beginning was small, yet thy end should greatly increase (Job VIII, 7).


The song toward the end of the seder asks “Who knows one?” and makes its way up to thirteen. For five, the answer is “five are the books of the Torah”. Which is why there are five books of the Torah, because with the written text are we dealing with a complete set. This idea, of two halves crying out for each other, is what the symbology of five revolves around in Judaism.


Shemot (Exodus) 26:1-3 Describe how the curtains used to cover the Mishkan, were made. All in all, there were ten curtains, two sets of five joined by special hooks. The Baal HaTurim writes that the ten curtains correspond to the Ten Commandments (the essential picture of the Torah) and the reason they were divided into two sets of five is because they corresponded to the five commandments on each tablet. The purpose of having a symbol of the ten commandments built into the Mishkan is a reminder of the purpose of the whole system of our worship, the observance of the Torah revelation encapsulated by the Ten Commandments, keeping the image of the giving of the Torah vivid in the people’s minds.


The Maharal indicates that five:


Portrays the five “directions” of this world, for there is a spiritual dimension in addition to the four directions of physical expanse. The fifth dimension is the spiritual core of existence; it focuses the four diverse sides into a single entity, by infusing the world with purpose. Hence the fifth dimension is the intangible spiritual element of life. The fifth letter of the Hebrew alphabet is hay ה. Its shape conveys the five dimensions of this world, for it is composed of the miniscule yod י – which connotes spirituality – inside a dalet ד, symbol of the four directions. The pronunciation of hay ה is just breath, as appropriate to its connotation of spirituality. It is only aspirated, without need of articulation by the throat, mouth or lips.


Avraham and the five kings were focused on an existence beyond this world. This is the world view represented by the number five. Five in Hebrew is represented by the letter v hay. If you look at the letter v hay, you will see that it is composed of the letter s dalet (which stands for four) plus the letter h yod. h Yod is a unique letter. It is the only letter which doesn’t touch the line on which you write. It is no more than the smallest dot floating above the line, representing intangible, spiritual existence. The written letter v hay, then, is a pictogram of this world focused and revolving around that which is above this world — the s dalet (the “four” of this world) with the h yod of spirituality at its axis. Avraham fought on behalf of the five kings against the four kings. Avraham was the first person to look at this world and see an existence beyond. If there was a creation, there had to be a Creator. After Abram fought the war against the four kings, HaShem added a letter to his name. Not surprisingly, that letter was the letter v hay. For Avraham stood for all that the v hay represents — that this world revolves around a Higher Existence.


The Maharal explains that the spiritual soul has five components. These five components are further grouped into three primary categories: the Nefesh (living or animal soul), Ruach (spirit or intellectual soul) and the Neshamah (Divine spark). The Nefesh and Ruach each have two components, for a total of four components. Together with the Neshama we have the five components of the soul. The Maharal states that these five soul[4] components align with the five Books of the Torah.     End of Maharal’s comments.


The connection between the soul of man and the Torah is strengthened when we understand that the personification of the soul of man and the personification of the Torah is Mashiach.




Hain, “Behold”, consists of two letters - Hay, and Nun. The gematria of Hay is 5. The gematria of Nun is 50. What do 5 and 50 share in common?


In the mystical sources, the decimal numbers symbolize the completion of an entire stage or level. To make the decimal number of ten, you could take one and nine, two and eight, three and seven, or four and six. However there is only one number which when added to itself will make ten. That number is 5. Similarly, the only number which added to itself will make the decimal number of 100 is 50. - Hain.


Hain (behold) symbolizes the Jewish People.


When the Jewish People find completion by connecting only with other Jews, they are safe from a hostile world.


* * *


The Gemara tells us that the expression “Vayihi b’may - and it came to pass in the days” is mentioned five times throughout Tanach.[5] The Maharal of Prague in his commentaries on Purim explains the significance of the number five. He cites the Gemara in Tractate Menachot,[6] which refers to the verse in Tehillim (Psalms),[7]B’Ka (Name of Hashem) formed the worlds.” The Gemara explains this to mean that HaShem created the physical world with the letter hay from His Name and the world to come with the letter yud from his Name. This existence manifested itself with the spirituality contained within the letter hay.


The Maharal explains that the letter hay, which has the numerical value of five, represents manifestation and revelation.


Thus, the Maharal concludes that since the Gemara makes a point of telling us that “Vayihi b’may” is mentioned five times, it is meant to communicate that these moments of history are true manifestations of suffering and difficulty.


From Gal Einai Institute


…So said HaShem to these bones: ‘Behold, I shall bring spirit into you and you shall live. And I shall place blood vessels on you and raise flesh upon you, and cover you with skin. And I shall give spirit into you and you shall live, and you shall know that I am HaShem.’


In the above passage from the Ezekiel 37 we find a four-level depiction of the body: bones, blood vessels, flesh, and skin, and a fifth, spiritual level that gives life to the body, spirit. The model most fitting for a comparative analysis of this structure is the four-letter essential Name of HaShem, with the apex of the yud forming the transcendent fifth level.


Whenever this four-level system is used to contemplate “existence,” there is always a fifth, higher and all-inclusive level that enlivens the other four. This fifth level is seen as the source of existence, and in the case of the body is the spirit of life, which comes to enliven all the other levels. As we will see presently, this corresponds to the respiratory system. The following chart summarizes the general model we have now described.



The spirit of life [respiration]



Thorn of yud







Blood vessels







midot—character attributes








Berachoth 57b Five things are a sixtieth part of something else: namely, fire, honey, Sabbath, sleep and a dream. Fire is one-sixtieth part of Gehinnom. Honey is one-sixtieth part of manna. Sabbath is one-sixtieth part of the world to come. Sleep is one-sixtieth part of death. A dream is one-sixtieth part of prophecy.


* * *


The Torah uses four expressions to describe our redemption from Egypt: HaShem said to the Jews in Egypt[8]:


“I will take you out from under Egypt’s burdens - Vehotzeiti


“And I will save you from their servitude - Vehitzalti


“And I will redeem you - Vega’alti


“And I will take you as My nation - Velakachti


We didn’t go from a slave nation to being the Chosen People at Mount Sinai overnight. There were different stages of redemption. The above phrases described these different stages. Each cup of wine represents one of these levels.


There’s actually a fifth expression of redemption, “Veheveiti” (and I will bring you into the Land of Israel). This is seen as a reference to the future redemption, to be announced by Elijah the Prophet, when HaShem will gather the Jews from the “four corners of the earth” and return them to their Land. This level of redemption is represented by the fifth cup, called “Elijah’s cup,” which we pour but we do not drink. The other four cups are drunk as part of the seder.


* * *


This revelation of the yechida is directly connected with Tishri, which contains Yom Kippur, the day of five prayers (including Ne’ila) on which the fifth level of the soul (the yechida) is revealed.


* * *


The altar was five cubits long and five cubits wide. The Hebrew numeral for five is the letter hay. The hay has two vertical lines and one horizontal line that extends above them with a slight gap in the upper left corner between the horizontal and vertical lines. This shape holds relevance to the altar.


* * *


Me’iri (R. Menahem HaMei’ri, Provence (France), 1249 – 1316), referring to the five who are expected to engage in spiritual intercourse, disagrees with Rambam relative to the source. For him, the concept of the five is based on simple arithmetic: Three judges and two litigants involved in a din Torah.


* * *


the Gemara says further that the earth was created with the five fingers of HaShem. This might allude to the four “Yesodot,” or states of physical being[9] -- earth (solid), water (liquid), air (gas), and fire (energy) -- as well as the fifth Yesod, Nefesh (the spiritual element), which together describe all


* * *


The number five is also associated with the corners of the head. Lets first look at what the Torah has to say:


Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:27 You shall not round the corners of your heads, nor mar the edges of your beards.


Rashi, on Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:27 tells us about the corners:


the edge of your beard [meaning:] The end of the beard and its borders. And these are five: two on each cheek at the top [edge of the cheek] near the head, where [the cheek] is broad and has two “corners” [i.e., extremities, one near the temple and the other at the end of the cheek bone towards the center of the face]—and one below, on the chin, at the point where the two cheeks join together.[10]


Rashi tells us that there are five (5) corners to the head.


* * *


The Arizal explains that numbers have their origins in the supernal spiritual worlds. Single digit numbers correspond to the physical realm Asiyah, the sefirat Malkhut. Tens correspond to the angelic realm Yetzirah, the sefirat Tiferet. Hundreds correspond to the Neshama realm Beriah, the sefirat Binah, Imma. Being that hundreds emanate from the realm of Imma, they are the source of blessing. Therefore, all offerings are the rectification of 100% of the produce offered.




Torah is in five books.

Torah is the prescription, or cause, for the appearance of the earth.


Bereshit – The Book of the Fathers


Yosef is the transitional character between Bereshit, the book of the Fathers (Patriarchs), and the book of Shemot, the book of the sons, because he was both a father and a son. He was a father because his sons were also two of the twelve tribes, he was also one of the twelve tribes and thus a son as well.


Shemot – The book of the Sons


Vayikra – The Book of the Mishkan


Bamidbar – The Desert Book


Devarim – Ariving at the Borders of Israel



Five layers of the world. All structures in Torah have five layers:


The יהוה name consists of five parts. The four letters plus the transition from no letters to the first letter.


One of the first obstacles to understanding the fourth book of the Chumash,[11] Bamidbar,[12] is thinking of it as a book. Bamidbar literally means “in the desert”.[13] But, the root of midbar, desert, is “MiDibur - מדיבור[14] which means literally means “from speech”, but used with the prefix bet, means a “place of speech or speaking”,[15] a place where thought is translated into action. Dibur is speaking to someone with articulate, verbal communication.


When the Jewish People left Egypt, they went straight into the desert. There’s something special about the desert. It’s very difficult to give directions there. “Turn left at the third cactus” will not get you very far. In Hebrew, the word for desert is “midbar”, which is from the root mi’dibur, “from speech”. The desert is the place that is removed from speech. Since the desert is the maximum place of non-speech, of non-direction, it is the ideal place to rebuild the power of speech from the ground up.


And that’s what the Jewish People were to do in the desert. When the Jewish People left Egypt, they had to rebuild this power of speech that had been in exile with them. The Zohar[16] says that the Divine Word (dibur) went into exile during the period of Egyptian slavery and was not totally liberated until the Giving of the Torah when G-d spoke directly to every Jew.


To help us rebuild the power of speech, after the exile, HaShem gave us the mitzvot of the Pesach seder.


The fifth stage of the seder is called maggid (storytelling) and it is one of two Torah-level mitzvot that are fulfilled by the evening’s ritual. (The second is eating matzah.) And maggid is further distinguished as one of the two mitzvot (out of 613) that are fulfilled by reciting a story. (The second being the tithe of bikkurim). The maggid portion of the Haggada actually combines both of these “speaking” mitzvot. It begins with several short passages that are directed toward the children who might not stay awake for the whole seder. And then it segues into a Torah portion that was to be spoken aloud when we offered our first fruits to the kohanim (Temple priests).[17] The maggid is a brief narrative of our exile in Egypt, our redemption, and the source of our obligation to fulfill the mitzvah of bikkurim. In the Passover haggada, every word of this script is unpacked and elaborated.[18] This is true dibur, true speech.


The whole point of the telling is to take dibur us, and speech, out of exile and use us in HaShem’s service.


The Zohar tells us that one of the first reforms inaugurated by the newly emergent conscience was to institute freedom of speech. Actually, it was more organic than that. As soon as the balance of power inverted, the gates of inspiration opened and speech emerged from exile. 


The ultimate liberation of dibur, called Oral Torah, is when a person speaks personal truth with such authenticity that it also conveys precisely what Hashem sought to reveal through them.  The Talmud declares: “HaShem’s seal is truth”[19] meaning that “Where you find truth, [you find HaShem, and] there you find Torah”.[20] Now let’s return to that time just after dibur, and us slaves, were freed. Let’s see the desert experience and the effects it had on dibur, speech.


If we look back over the Book of Bamidbar, the book of “In the desert”, we will notice all of the events dealt with speech. Let me say that again:  Every event is Sefer Bamidbar deals with speech, for the most part it deals with the misuse of speech. Consider the following examples:


Chapter 1: The first census where the eleven tribes were counted (the Levites were NOT counted, which is a story unto itself). It is well known that a “teller” counts money and one who retells a story is said to “recount” it. Thus we understand that counting is another way of telling a story.

Chapter 2: The camping order. We all understand that there is non-verbal speech that has no sound. The order of the tribes in the desert was one such speech. Note that each tribe had a place and each tribe had its own banner. The story of chapter one continued with a precise count for each of the eleven tribes.

Chapter 3 & 4: HaShem’s speech and plans regarding the tribe of Levi and their service. The Levites count is now included as part of their speech. As part of this census, money is used to give a silent speech about the redemption of the remainder of the firstborn Levites.

Chapter 5: Speaks of leprosy, the mis-use of speech for lashon HaRa, evil speech. This pasuk also contains the speech of a sinner when he confesses his sin, and the testimony of the woman suspected of adultery (sota).

Chapter 6:  Speaks of the nazirite vow, another form of speech. This pasuk also details the Aaronic blessing given to the Bne Israel, another form of speech.

Chapter 7: Speaks of the dedication of the offerings of the tribes. These non-verbal speeches each spoke to the uniqueness of their tribe (despite the fact that they were all the same). This pasuk concludes with HaShem speaking with Moshe.

Chapter 8: Details the lighting of the menorah, the purification of the Levites, with their offerings. This chapter contains HaShem’s speech in the form of instructions.

Chapter 9: Continues HaShem’s speech regards Pesach observance. This pasuk also details the marching instruction speech that HaShem gave to Moshe. These detailed instructions also told their own story.

Chapter 10: Finds the Bne Israel making two silver trumpets to be used to instruct the Bne Israel on marching and camping. Unlike a plain blast, or a crying blast, these blasts were instructive and carried a specific message. This pasuk also details the marching order, another non-verbal speech that was spoken with all of the bodies of every man, woman, and child.

Chapter 11:  Murmuring, speaking evil. HaShem’s fire devoured the evil-speakers. This pasuk also speaks of the lust for meat and its murmuring. This murmuring was complaining about manna. This pasuk also speaks of the 70 elders becoming prophets.

Chapter 12: Miriam speaking negatively about Moshe because of the Cushite. Miriam is afflicted with Tzaraat, leprosy.

Chapter 13: The spies speaking against the Land of Israel.

Chapter 14: The people all crying and maligning the land. The people are all murmuring.

Chapter 15: Offerings and atonement. Man collecting firewood on the Sabbath is stoned. This pasuk also contains the command of tzitzith.

Chapter 16 & 17: The rebellion of Korach (a rebellion about who should lead the Jewish People; who should be its “speaker”).

Chapter 18: Aharon and his sons get the priesthood. This soliloquy is by HaShem.

Chapter 19:  The red heifer. She, too, has a non-verbal message.

Chapter 20: Murmuring over the lack of water because Miriam’s well has disappeared. Edom denied passage. Moshe striking the rock instead of speaking to it. Aharon dies and the people wail for him for 30 days.

Chapter 21:  The Bne Israel make a vow to destroy their enemy. The people murmured against HaShem regarding the manna. They also complained that there was no water. HaShem will send fiery serpents with a pole serpent for the cure. Sihon and Og are defeated.

Chapter 22, 23, & 24: Bilaam and Balak to curse the Jewish people. Here we see a donkey’s speech, a Gentile prophet’s speech, and the evil speech of Balak.

Chapter 25:  False worship of Peor. Phineas kills Zimri and Cosbi.

Chapter 26:  A second census. Thus we understand that counting is another way of telling a story. Nadab and Abihu die after offering strange fire.

Chapter 27: The daughters of Tzelofchad want land. Women always have a greater love for the land.[21] Yehoshua is anointed as the future leader of the Bne Israel.

Chapter 28 & 29:  Offerings made by fire, and festivals.

Chapter 30:  Vows. Here we see the proper and the improper use of vows.

Chapter 31:  Midianites are avenged. All the men and married women are killed. Spoil is divided, part for HaShem (Levites).

Chapter 32: Reuben and Gad want the land east of the Jordan. There is a back and forth between them and Moshe. Reuben and Gad put animals before the children, in priority. Moshe, rearranges the order to put the children first.

Chapter 33:  The story of the journey. From Egypt to the Promised land and all the stops in-between.

Chapter 34:  HaShem defines the borders of the land.

Chapter 35: The cities of refuge.

Chapter 36: Moshe allots the daughters of Tzelofchad their inheritance in the land. It is no accident that the Chumash finishes this fourth book with five females who have a great love for the land of Israel. This love is greatest in females and this fourth book is translating from thought to action. All the physical processes are found in the fourth of five. The fourth is the action in this world.

Even if we might otherwise have missed the centrality of this notion, the book’s ‘orality’ is brought to our attention right from the start: “These are the words that Moshe spoke.” The text clues us in to the fact that, as opposed to the other four books, Bamidbar, to its very core, is an oral work.


The fourth of the five layers upon which the world is built, is the layer of speech. The fourth part of any structure is where all of the action is taking place. Consider the Chumash, the five books of the Torah.


BeresheetRatzon (desire) - something from nothing. This is the point of origin. This is a male process. This sefer represents the maximal male process.


ShemotMachshavah, a thought with no form. by which the soul is revealed inwardly. It will be revealed externally in Bamidbar as “speech” (dibur) and “deed”. A flash of inspiration.


VayikraHirhur – imagination. The thoughts become explicit. The plan becomes complete. The Mishna teaches that Hirhur (thought) is k'dibur (like speech). If not, there would be no reason to have Hirhur! Hirhur is not like Dibur. If it were, he should say the words![22]


BamidbarDibur also means a place of speaking, a thought translated into action – Speech - Any translation of plan into action. This is where the potential is turned into the actual. Whenever you have a series of five, in the Torah, the fourth in the series is where all the actios of this world are found. The whole book speaks to speech and the misuse of speech, every incident. And where do we go after the rebuilding, the tikkun, of the power of speech? To the “Book of Devarim”, literally, “The Book of Words”.


DevarimMaser – action – kol and dibur (voice and speech). - The words that were spoken. All of this sefer’s duplicated commands are the commands needed in eretz Israel. This sefer represents the maximal female process.


The recipient, this sefer, gives back what she has received from the male (Beresheet). Debarim represents the maximal female level. That is why the words are repeated, or doubled, which is the job of a woman (to double herself, i.e. childbirth). This is the root of the oral law.


Hopefully, we have a greater appreciation of the difference between kol (voice) and dibur (speech). Both of these things pull on our hearts and move us. David looked into our Torah seder and was inspired by the wise hearted and used this as a springboard to speak of the future in Daniel’s day and to teach us about the works of our mouth.







Maximal Female Process

The fourth is always the most important. This is where the action takes place. – Vilna Gaon



Maximal Male Process

Hay - ה


Vav - ו


Hay - ה


Yod - י


The Name

Point of origin of the yod. Something from nothing.


Zeir Anpin

(Small Face)






Arich Anpin

(Long Face)



















Index finger

Middle finger

Ring finger


Pinkie finger





Soul levels



World of ‘Making’



World of ‘Formation’.


World of ‘Creation’


World of ‘Emanation’, also "Close".


Adam Kadmon Primordial Man




Thought translated into action


Imagination with an image. Doubled word for the female.


A thought with no form.



Dreams are 1/60 of prophecy.

Sleep is 1/60 of death.

Shabbat is 1/60 of the world to come.

Honey, is 1/60 of manna.

A Taste

Fire is 1/60 of Gehenna.[23]



Song of Songs


Five Scrolls


The stickleback is a terror to the leviathan.

The flycatcher is a terror to the eagle.

The ichneumon-fly is a terror to the scorpion.

The gnat is a terror to the elephant.


The mosquito is a terror to the lion.[24]

The walls of Jerusalem were breached.

An idol was placed in the Holy Temple.

A breach was made in the city and Apostomos burned the Torah scroll.

Daily offering was discontinued.

Tammuz 17

Moses broke the tablets.[25]

The Temple area was plowed under.

Betar was captured.

The Second Temple was destroyed.

The First Temple was destroyed.

Tisha B’Av

Decreed that our Fathers should not enter the Promised land.

No wearing of leather shoes.

No sexual intimacy.

No applying oils and creams.

No washing.

Yom Kippur

No eating or drinking.

No smoke arose from outside the Temple.

It devoured wet wood like dry wood.

Its flame was of solid substance.

It was clear as sunlight.

Temple Fire

Fire was lying like a lion.[26]

The Urim and the Thumim.

The Holy Spirit of Prophecy.

The visible presense.

The fire from, heaven upon the altar.

Missing from the 2nd Temple The ark.

The plate itself, is the Nukva Malchut.

1) Z’roa / Shank bone in Chesed, [reminder of having been spared the killing of the first born],

2) Beitzah / Egg in Gevurah [recalling the churban, our punishment],

3) Maror / Bitter herbs in Tiferet [stirring compassion],

4) Karpas / Celery in Netzach [reminder of the labor],

5) Charoset / Pesach Mixture in Hod [mortar, mud, apple, sweetness],

6) Chazeret / Horseradish  in Yesod [slavery]-




Seder Plate


Respect for Parents and Teachers

Observance of Sacred Times

Prohibition of False Oaths

Prohibition of Improper Worship

Aseret HaDibrot

Belief in G-d

Prohibition of Coveting

Prohibition of Harming a Person through Speech

Prohibition of Theft (kidnapping)

Prohibition of Sexual Immorality

Aseret HaDibrot

Prohibition of Physically Harming a Person







Eliyahu’s Cup

Cup of Hallel

Cup of Redemption

Cup of Plagues

Seder Cups


Knows Not How to Ask




Haggada Sons






Five Joy in His Presence




















































This study was written by

Rabbi Dr. Hillel ben David

(Greg Killian).

Comments may be submitted to:


Rabbi Dr. Greg Killian

6970 Axis St. SE

Lacey, WA 98513


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(360) 918-2905


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[1] Bereshit, Shemot, Vayikra, Bamidbar, and Devarim.


[3] Five years is, thus, an accepted period for the first phase of education. Commencing Scripture at five, one is ready for Mishna at ten.

[4] Nephesh, Ruach, Neshama, Chaya, Yachida.

[5] The so called Old Testament.

[6] Menachoth 29b

[7] Tehillim (Psalms) 90:2.

[8] Exodus 6:6-8

[9] Bamidbar Rabbah 14:12, Zohar 2:24a

[10] Torath Kohanim 19:74; Mak. 20b

[11] AKA Torah

[12] AKA Numbers

[13] A desert is a place where no speech is possible. A desert is like an ocean with no landmarks.

[14] So midbar is exchangeable with midaber, meaning speech that comes forth automatically, of its own accord.

[15] Speech (dibur) also means leadership in Hebrew, the king rules with his word.

[16] Vaeira 25b

[17] Debarim (Deuteronomy) 26:5-8

[18] The Haggada itself states: “To elaborate on these ideas is praiseworthy”.

[19] Shabbat 55a; Yoma 69b, Sanhedrin. 64a.

[20] Rosh HaShana 18a

[21] Eretz (land) means running towards, while Shamayim (heavens) are the endpoints that we were running towards. Thus we understand that women have a greater connection to the lower world, the land, while men have a greater connection to the upper worlds, the spiritual realms. Never the less, we always want what we don’t have. That is why men seek the lower world and its pleasures, while women seek the spiritual world and its pleasures.

[22] Sotah 32, Rav Chisda

[23] Brachot 57b

[24] Shabbath 77b?

[25] Taanot 4:6

[26] Yoma 21b