I. Introduction. 1

II. Mashiach In Torah. 7

III. PaRDeS in the Nazarean Codicil 7

IV. Hidden Things. 8

V. Some Rules Used to Find Remez. 10

VI. The Story of Joshua and Rehab. 11

VII. Chronology of Rehab. 11

VIII. Rehab’s Redemption. 11

IX. Connections for Yericho and Pesach. 13

X. Yericho and Rosh Chodesh. 14

XI. Succoth. 14

XII. The Tree of Life. 14

XIII. Jews and Gentiles. 14

XIV. The Prodigals Son. 14

XV. The Fast of Gedaliah. 15

XVI. The Temple and Mashiach. 17

XVII. Symbols. 17

XVIII. Jonah. 25

XIX. Yoseph. 27

XX. Difficulties Solved. 42

XXI. Symbols. 43

XXII. PaRDeS from the Rabbis. 43



I. Introduction


In this study I would like to examine one of the Jewish methods for Torah (Bible) interpretation. The Sages indicate that there are seventy levels of Torah interpretation which are built according to the acronym: PaRDeS. Another way of referring to the levels of PaRDeS is as the Seventy Faces of Torah[1]. The concept of a face is something that reveals on the outside that which is hidden on the inside. The number seventy is called the number of wisdom.


פרדס - PaRDeS is the Hebrew word for orchard. Pardes is actually a roshei teivot (literally, “heads of words”), an acronym for the words:



Pshat » simple understanding


Remez » hinted meaning


Drush » allegorical explanation


Sod » esoteric understanding


To understand the concept of PaRDeS in this world, HaShem gave us a picture by way of His Temple. The Holy of Holies in the Temple was separated from the rest of the Sanctuary by a curtain. The walls of the Sanctuary building separated it from the rest of the Temple Mount. The Temple Mount was separated from the rest of the holy city of Jerusalem by the kotel – the wall surrounding it on all sides. Jerusalem was separated from the rest of the country by its enveloping city walls. Thus, to reach the Holy of Holies, one had to enter the city gates; gain access to the Temple courtyard; have the right of entry into the Sanctuary and be the most privileged of privileged to pass beyond the curtain before the Holy of Holies.


פ - PSHAT - “simple” the plain meaning of (e.g.) a Torah passage. Rashi’s commentary was written at this level. Pshat is not the literal meaning of a verse but the accepted traditional interpretation to the literal meaning of the verse. For example, when the Torah says ‘an eye for an eye’, the Pshat is monetary compensation and not the literal ‘eye for an eye’


Peshat of the Torah text is akin to entering through the city gates of Jerusalem.


Pshat is the simplest meaning, based on the text and context. Rashi explains that pshat of the verse as follows: “In the beginning of God’s creation of the heaven and the earth, the earth was desolate and void.” This is based on a linguistic analysis of the word “Bereshit,” which does not mean “In the beginning”, but “In the beginning of...”


ר - REMEZ - “hint” the interpretation of Scripture at the level of allusive implication. Gematria is a form of remez. Many of the explanations in the Talmud are based on rather obvious hints in the Torah such as extra words, extra letters, missing letters, missing words, big letters, little letters, and the spacing between words and letters.


Remez of the Torah text is comparable to gaining access to the Temple Mount.


Remez is the “hint.” The Gaon of Vilna[2] taught that all commands of the Torah are hinted at in the first word of the Torah. For instance, Pidyon Haben - redemption of the first-born - is alluded to by an acronym of the letters of Bereshit, which spell “ben rishon acharei shloshim yom tifdeh” - the first son you shall redeem after thirty days.


One of the paths of Remez is that of Gematria, the search for meaning by evaluating the numerical equivalents of Hebrew words and verses by using the number values of the letters of the Aleph Bet (Aleph = 1, Bet = 2, ...etc.).[3]


ד - DERASH - “search” the non-literal, homiletic interpretation of Torah (moralistic meaning), as in the Midrash, or Talmudic, aggadot. This level of understanding is based on a detailed logical analysis of Talmudic rules of logic. “The word ‘derash’ means ‘investigation,’ implying a level understanding arrived at only after one has delved beyond the black and white letters and words. This is an exegetical level of understanding. There are two types:


Through derash of the Torah text we find ourselves within the holy Sanctuary.


Drash is the contextual and non-contextual, moral and philosophical explanations. Rashi states that there is a philosophical idea alluded to in the word “Bereshit.” The world was created for the sake of Torah which is called “reshit,” and for the Jewish people who are also referred to as “reshit.” Both are “firsts” in terms of their centrality in the purpose of Creation.


1. Midrash Halacha - Scriptural sources for Jewish Laws.


2. Midrash Aggada - blend of history, parables, and poetry.


ס - SOD - “secret“ is the Kabbalistic or mystical, super rational dimension illuminated by the teachings of the Kaballah. Normally, the mystical understandings are studied at night.


Only the privileged of privileged may possess sod of the Torah text and the key to the Holy of Holies itself.


Sod is the hidden or secret meaning. Mishna: “The world was created with ten statements.” Gemara[4]: “But when you count them there are only nine statements! Bereshit (In the beginning) is also a statement.” The statement of “Bereshit” was the creation of time, which is a dimension of the physical world. One of the names of HaShem is “HaMakom” - “The Place” - as the Midrash explains that “He is the place of the world, the world is not His place.” This concept is based on the idea that the physical world would not exist if not for HaShem willing it to exist at every moment. Therefore HaShem is the “Place” of the world, meaning the framework of reality in which everything exists, and He provides the possibility of existence to all of creation. The dimension of time and the laws of nature were created during the six days of Creation. The Sforno, The Gaon of Vilna[5], the Maharal, and Maimonides,[6] all basing themselves on the Talmud, state that the hidden meaning of the word “In the Beginning” - בראשת - Bereshit - is the creation of what we today call “the space-time continuum.”


“The apprehension begins from the hidden Torah, and only afterwards does one apprehend the remaining portions of the Torah, and only in the end does one apprehend the revealed Torah.”[7].


The Vilna Gaon said something odd regarding the sod level. How can it be that I start with the secret level in order to understand the straightforward level?


In order to answer this question, we first need to better understand what we mean here when we use the term pshat, and the term sod (secret), with regard to the Torah. It can be understood by using an analogy. When I see two people talking together, there are two conditions necessary for what they are speaking about to be considered as a secret (sod) from me firstly, that I don’t hear or understand what they are saying, and secondly, the I feel that they are talking about me, or something which is pertinent to me. The first condition is obviously needed if I heard and understood what they were saying, it would not be hidden from me, and thus not a sod to me. The second condition is necessary because when we talk about the hidden part of the Torah, its secrets, we are referring only to that which the Torah talks about which is relevant to us. And, thus we have a solution to this problem


When is the Torah hidden from us? When we don’t know how it relates, and is relevant to us. Thus, when we first see the Torah, it seems to be a number of nice stories, along with commandments and guidance for our behavior. But we don’t see how it is relevant to us. So, while we may read it, we don’t really “hear” it. When we come to the realization, in any particular portion, or the Torah as a whole, that we don’t see how the Torah is talking about us, then we have apprehended the “Hidden Torah”. Now when this realization causes a person to feel truly what he is missing, so he acquires a lack, a deficiency, or a need and he is able to make a true prayer to HaShem to help him to fill this lack and longing that he feels. When HaShem answers his prayer, and he apprehends and realizes how the Torah is talking specifically about him, then he has apprehended the pshat (revealed) aspect of the Torah.


Thus, there is no difficulty with what the Gr”a says that the apprehension of the Torah begins with “sod” and ends with “pshat”.


Without the Sod level, the simple meaning is incomplete and, if it is represented as the whole and complete meaning, then it is in error.


The following is the only reference to Pardes, orchard (and the source of the word “Paradise”), at least in this sense, in the Talmud. Though it is not explained here, from the results we can see that it means something special:


Chagigah 14b The rabbis taught: Four entered Pardes: Ben Azzai, Ben Zoma, Acher, and Rebi Akiva. Rebi Akiva told them, “When you arrive at the Stones of Pure Marble, don’t say, ‘Water, water,’ because it says, ‘He who speaks falsehood will not be established before My eyes’ (Tehillim 101:7).” Ben Azzai gazed at the Divine Presence and died, and with respect to him it says, “Difficult in the eyes of God is the death of His pious ones” (Tehillim 116:15). Ben Zoma gazed and went mad, to him the following verse may be applied: “Have you found honey? Eat as much as is sufficient for you, so that you do not consume too much and have to vomit it . . .” (Mishlei 25:16). Acher “cut off his plantings” (i.e., he became a heretic). Rebi Akiva entered in peace and departed in peace.


It says in the Zohar[8] further regarding the four who entered Pardes, that it had been their intention to rectify the sin of Adam HaRishon, to meditate and ascend from level to level until the Torah of Atzilut at the root of all positive and pegative mitzvot.


Secrets within Secrets


As is widely known, there are four levels of Scriptural interpretation - pshat, remez, Derash and sod. The following teaching regarding these four levels has been passed down to us by the Chassidim, the pious ones, of an earlier generation in the name of the Tzemach Tzedek:


“Each of the four levels of interpretation incorporates all of the other levels.


Within the level of sod, for example, there is the pshat within sod, the remez within sod, the Derash within sod, and the sod within sod.


The pshat within sod was revealed by Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai.


The remez within sod was revealed by the Arizal.


The Derash within sod was revealed by the Baal Shem Tov.


The sod within sod will be revealed by Mashiach.”


When we labor in the study of Torah it is like a man who labors in an orchard (PaRDeS):


Midrash Rabbah - Bereshit (Genesis) IX:9 9. R. Ze’ira said: BEHOLD, IT WAS VERY GOOD refers to Paradise; AND BEHOLD, IT WAS VERY GOOD, to Gehenna. Is then the Gehenna very good? How remarkable! This, however, may be compared to a king who had an orchard, into which he brought workers. He built a treasure house by its entrance and said: ‘Whoever will labour conscientiously in the work of the orchard may enter the treasure house, but he who will not show himself worthy in the work of the orchard may not enter the treasure house.’ Thus for him who treasures up religious acts and good deeds, behold there is Paradise; while for him who does not lay up religious acts and good deeds, behold there is Gehenna.


Midrash Rabbah - Shemot (Exodus) II:2 R. Jannai said: Although His Presence is in heaven, yet ‘His eyes behold, His eyelids try, the children of men’. God was here like a King who had an orchard, wherein he built a tall tower and commanded that workmen should be engaged to do his work there. The King said that the one who was proficient in his work would receive full reward, but one who was indolent in his work would be handed over to the Governments.[9] This King is the King of kings, and the orchard is the world in which God has placed Israel to keep the Torah; He also stipulated with them that he who keeps the Torah has the entry to Paradise, but he who does not keep it is faced with Gehinnom. Thus with God; though He seems to have removed His Presence from the Temple, yet ‘His eyes behold, His eyelids try, the children of men’. And whom does He try? The righteous, as it says: The Lord trieth the righteous (ib. 5). By what does He try him? By tending flocks. He tried David through sheep and found him to be a good shepherd, as it is said: He chose David also His servant and took him from the sheepfolds (ib. LXXVII, 70). Why ‘from the sheepfolds’, when the word is the same as and the rain... was restrained? (Gen. VIII, 2). Because he used to stop the bigger sheep


This next section is an editited portion originally written by Rabbi Pinchas Winston.


Another way of looking at these four levels is as layers, concentric spheres that overlap each other like layers of an onion. Pshat represents the most outer, obvious layer while sod represents the most hidden, inner, and essential layer. In fact, sod, being the most inner layer is said to be enclothed by drush, which is enclothed by remez, all of which are enclothed by the most outer layer, pshat.


For example, the first word of the Torah is “Bereshit”, which is generally translated as, “in the beginning”. This is the simplest explanation of this word, and therefore it is the pshat of this word.


However, as Rashi points out, the form of the word is actually grammatically incorrect. If one wants to say, “in the beginning,” he should instead write, “b’rishonah.” Now, since Torah is the word of God, dictated to Moshe Rabbeinu letter-by-letter, word-by-word, and therefore perfect, the fact that this word was not spelled grammatically correct, Rashi explains, HINTS to a deeper level of meaning for this first word of the Torah.


Thus, Rashi explains, the word “Bereshit” can actually be read as two words: “reshit” with the letter “bait”. Thus, on the level of remez, the first word of the Torah no longer only means “in the beginning,” but can also translate as, “for reshit,” which, as Rashi proves, is an allusion to Torah and the Jewish people. On this level of explanation, the posuk would read:


For the sake of Torah and the Jewish people, God made heaven and earth.


However, beyond this, there is nothing more unusual about the word to suggest to the physical eye even deeper layers of understanding. To go beyond the level of pshat and remez is a matter for the mind’s eye, and usually a function of a known tradition passed down from generation to generation. This is the level of drush.


Continuing with our example, we know from the Torah that the world was created in six days, and that all the matter for the six days of creation came into being, at least in potential, the moment God said, “Bereshit”. And, not just for the six days of creation, but for the six millennia that followed as well, like a script that is written and completed in advance of the play. The question is, is there an allusion to this idea in the word itself?


The answer emerges when the word “Bereshit” is once again divided into two parts, but this time between the first three and the last three letters of the word. This yields two smaller word: “bara” and “shit”, which mean, “He created six,” “shit” being the Aramaic form of the word, “shaish,” which means “six.”


Thus, exegetically, the first word of the Torah reveals a very important philosophical fact: when God made the world ex nihilo on day one of creation, He created the potential for anything and everything that would ever exist in creation at that first moment. Nothing, in history, therefore, can ever be considered random.


What about the level of sod? What Kabbalistic teaching emerges from the word bereshit that reveals to us a secret about creation?


On this level of explanation, the word bereshit is once again divided into two as on the level of drush. However, this time the word “shit” alludes not only to the six days of creation and the subsequent six millennia, but also to the six sefirot of Chesed through Yesod, spiritual emanations into which God encoded the script for 6000 years of history:


. . . This is why so much time must transpire from the time of creation until the time of the tikun (i.e., Mashiach’s coming): all the forces of Gevurot are rooted in the six sefirot — Chesed, Gevurah, Tifferet, Netzach, Hod, Yesod — which are the six days of creation, and also the six thousand years of history that the world will exist. And within them (the six Sefirot) are the roots of all that will happen from the six days of creation until the Final Rectification[10].


The significance of this information may not be obvious to one unfamiliar with the Sefirot. However, for our purposes, it is enough to know that within one word, there are four layers of meaning, each one true, but each one more specific and revealing than the previous one. And, even though one level may allude to a deeper level of explanation than itself, that deeper level is only revealed once the “clothing” of the previous level has been “removed,” which is necessary if one wants to get to the essence of an idea.


The following table attempts to bring the four levels into closer focus:















Explore - Ask


Literary level





Audience level

Common People


(Lawyers, Judges, Scientists)


(civil servants, political scientists)



Hermeneutic level[11]

7 Hillel Laws

13 Ishmael Laws

32 Ben Gallil Laws

42 Zohar Laws

Rabbinic level






Marqos (Mark),

1 & 2 Peter

I and II Luqas (Luke)

Matityahu (Matthew)

Yochanan (John) 1, 2, 3, and Revelation


HaShem’s Servant

Son of Man

The King

Son of G-D










Principle Concern

What do we have to do?

What is the meaning behind what we have to do?

How do we go about establishing HaShem’s Kingdom on earth?

What metaphysical meaning is there to what is happening?






















Outside Chatzer



Kodesh Kodashim


Mikrah Megillah

Matanot L’Evyonim

Mishloach Manot

Seudas Purim


II. Mashiach In Torah


Our Mashiach, His Majesty King Yeshua, indicated that the scriptures speak of Him. He performed a crucial Messianic role when He opened the scriptures to reveal Himself in them:


Luqas (Luke) 24:18-27 One of them, named Cleopas, asked him, “Are you only a visitor to Jerusalem and do not know the things that have happened there in these days?” “What things?” he asked. “About Yeshua of Nazareth,” they replied. “He was a prophet, powerful in word and deed before God and all the people. The chief priests and our rulers handed him over to be sentenced to death, and they crucified him; But we had hoped that he was the one who was going to redeem Israel. And what is more, it is the third day since all this took place. In addition, some of our women amazed us. They went to the tomb early this morning But didn’t find his body. They came and told us that they had seen a vision of angels, who said he was alive. Then some of our companions went to the tomb and found it just as the women had said, but him they did not see.” He said to them, “How foolish you are, and how slow of heart to believe all that the prophets have spoken! Did not the Mashiach have to suffer these things and then enter his glory?” And beginning with Moses and all the Prophets, he explained to them what was said in all the Scriptures concerning himself.


Yochanan (John) 5:36-40 “I have testimony weightier than that of Yochanan (John). For the very work that the Father has given me to finish, and which I am doing, testifies that the Father has sent me. And the Father who sent me has himself testified concerning me. You have never heard his voice nor seen his form, Nor does his word dwell in you, for you do not believe the one he sent. You diligently study the Scriptures because you think that by them you possess eternal life. These are the Scriptures that testify about me, Yet you refuse to come to me to have life.


It seems clear: If you can’t see that every scripture speaks about His Majesty King Yeshua, our Mashiach, then we have failed to grasp the message of scripture. Every letter, every space, every crown, every word, and every verse tells the story of Mashiach. If we don’t see this, then we have not studied the scriptures.


This study will begin to look at the ways that Torah testifies about His Majesty, King Yeshua, the Mashiach ben Yoseph.


III. PaRDeS in the Nazarean Codicil


There is some evidence to suggest that the first four books of the Nazarean Codicil are formulated according to the four PaRDeS interpretations:


Peshat Marcus / Marqos (Mark)

Remez Luqas / Luqas (Luke) and II Luqas (Acts)

Derash Matityahu / Matityahu (Matthew)

Sod Yochanan / Yochanan (John) and The Revelation


It should not be surprising to discover that the Nazarean Codicil would follow the Jewish way of interpretation. After all, His Majesty, King Yeshua was Jewish. All of the Patriarchs, Prophets, and Apostles were all Jewish. It stands to reason that they would write according to the Jewish style of HaShem.


Psalm 2:1-8 is a mission statement for Mashiach along with Romans 9, 10, 11:


Tehillim (Psalms) 2:1-8 Why do the nations conspire and the peoples plot in vain? The kings of the earth take their stand and the rulers gather together against HaShem and against his Anointed One. “Let us break their chains,” they say, “and throw off their fetters.” The One enthroned in heaven laughs; the Lord scoffs at them. Then he rebukes them in his anger and terrifies them in his wrath, saying, “I have installed my King on Zion, my holy hill.” I will proclaim the decree of HaShem: He said to me, “You are my Son; today I have become your Father. Ask of me, and I will make the nations your inheritance, the ends of the earth your possession.


IV. Hidden Things


The fascinating data which is concealed in the various levels of Torah study is often alluded to in Scriptures. In this section we will examine some of the references


Israel to be used for signs and symbols


Yeshayahu (Isaiah) 8:18-19 Here am I, and the children HaShem has given me. We are signs and symbols in Israel from HaShem Almighty, who dwells on Mount Zion. When men tell you to consult mediums and spiritists, who whisper and mutter, should not a people inquire of their God? Why consult the dead on behalf of the living?


Devarim (Deuteronomy) 28:45-47 All these curses will come upon you. They will pursue you and overtake you until you are destroyed, because you did not obey HaShem your God and observe the commands and decrees he gave you. They will be a sign and a wonder to you and your descendants forever. Because you did not serve HaShem your God joyfully and gladly in the time of prosperity,


Some signs will be sealed till the time of the end:


Daniel 12:4 But you, Daniel, close up and seal the words of the scroll until the time of the end. Many will go here and there to increase knowledge.”


The sign of Jonah


Matityahu (Matthew) 12:39 He answered, “A wicked and adulterous generation asks for a miraculous sign! But none will be given it except the sign of the prophet Jonah.


Luqas (Luke) 11:29 As the crowds increased, Yeshua said, “This is a wicked generation. It asks for a miraculous sign, but none will be given it except the sign of Jonah.


The sign of Mashiach’s coming and the end of the age:


Matityahu (Matthew) 24:3 As Yeshua was sitting on the Mount of Olives, the disciples came to him privately. “Tell us,” they said, “when will this happen, and what will be the sign of your coming and of the end of the age?”


The Pharisees ask for a sign:


Marqos (Mark) 8:11-13 The Pharisees came and began to question Yeshua. To test him, they asked him for a sign from heaven. He sighed deeply and said, “Why does this generation ask for a miraculous sign? I tell you the truth, no sign will be given to it.” Then he left them, got back into the boat and crossed to the other side.


The Child sign:


Luqas (Luke) 2:12 This will be a sign to you: You will find a baby wrapped in cloths and lying in a manger.”


Sign from heaven:


Luqas (Luke) 11:16 Others tested him by asking for a sign from heaven.


Jews ask for a sign:


Yochanan (John) 2:18 Then the Jews demanded of him, “What miraculous sign can you show us to prove your authority to do all this?”


The crowd seeks a sign:


Yochanan (John) 6:30 So they asked him, “What miraculous sign then will you give that we may see it and believe you? What will you do?


Hidden things revealed:


Matityahu (Matthew) 11:25 At that time Yeshua said, “I praise you, Father, Lord of heaven and earth, because you have hidden these things from the wise and learned, and revealed them to little children.


Luqas (Luke) 10:21 At that time Yeshua, full of joy through the Holy Spirit, said, “I praise you, Father, Lord of heaven and earth, because you have hidden these things from the wise and learned, and revealed them to little children. Yes, Father, for this was your good pleasure.


Things hidden since creation:


Matityahu (Matthew) 13:35 So was fulfilled what was spoken through the prophet: “I will open my mouth in parables, I will utter things hidden since the creation of the world.”


Tehillim (Psalms) 78:2 I will open my mouth in parables, I will utter hidden things, things from of old--


Romans 16:25-27 Now to him who is able to establish you by my gospel and the proclamation of Yeshua Mashiach, according to the revelation of the mystery hidden for long ages past, But now revealed and made known through the prophetic writings by the command of the eternal God, so that all nations might believe and obey him-- To the only wise God be glory forever through Yeshua Mashiach! Amen.


Hidden things fulfilled:


Luqas (Luke) 18:31-34 Yeshua took the Twelve aside and told them, “We are going up to Jerusalem, and everything that is written by the prophets about the Son of Man will be fulfilled. He will be handed over to the Gentiles. They will mock him, insult him, spit on him, flog him and kill him. On the third day he will rise again.” The disciples did not understand any of this. Its meaning was hidden from them, and they did not know what he was talking about.


Blinded unbelievers:


II Corinthians 4:2-4 Rather, we have renounced secret and shameful ways; we do not use deception, nor do we distort the word of God. On the contrary, by setting forth the truth plainly we commend ourselves to every man’s conscience in the sight of God. And even if our gospel is veiled, it is veiled to those who are perishing. The god of this age has blinded the minds of unbelievers, so that they cannot see the light of the gospel of the glory of Mashiach, who is the image of God.


The secret things of God:


1 Corinthians 4:1 So then, men ought to regard us as servants of Mashiach and as those entrusted with the secret things of God.


1 Corinthians 2:6-8 We do, however, speak a message of wisdom among the mature, but not the wisdom of this age or of the rulers of this age, who are coming to nothing. No, we speak of God’s secret wisdom, a wisdom that has been hidden and that God destined for our glory before time began. None of the rulers of this age understood it, for if they had, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory.


Milk vs. Solid food:


1 Corinthians 3:1-2 Brothers, I could not address you as spiritual but as worldly--mere infants in Mashiach. I gave you milk, not solid food, for you were not yet ready for it. Indeed, you are still not ready.


Mystery made known:


Ephesians 1:9 And he made known to us the mystery of his will according to his good pleasure, which he purposed in Mashiach,


Ephesians 3:9 And to make plain to everyone the administration of this mystery, which for ages past was kept hidden in God, who created all things.


Colossians 1:26-27 The mystery that has been kept hidden for ages and generations, but is now disclosed to the saints To them God has chosen to make known among the Gentiles the glorious riches of this mystery, which is Mashiach in you, the hope of glory.


Colossians 2:1-3 I want you to know how much I am struggling for you and for those at Laodicea, and for all who have not met me personally. My purpose is that they may be encouraged in heart and united in love, so that they may have the full riches of complete understanding, in order that they may know the mystery of God, namely, Mashiach, In whom are hidden all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge.


The hidden manna:


Revelation 2:17 He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the churches. To him who overcomes, I will give some of the hidden manna. I will also give him a white stone with a new name written on it, known only to him who receives it.


In the Nazarean Codicil we find further allusion to the hidden things when Mashiach said the following:


Matityahu (Matthew) 8:4 Then Yeshua said to him, “See that you don’t tell anyone. But go, show yourself to the priest and offer the gift Moses commanded, as a testimony to them.”


Mashiach commanded others, many times, not to reveal some information. He also clearly revealed that some information was not for everyone:


Matityahu (Matthew) 8:4, Matityahu 9:30, Matityahu 11:25, Matityahu 12:16, Matityahu 13:11, Matityahu 16:20, Matityahu 17:9, Marqos (Mark) 1:44, Marqos 5:43, Marqos 7:36, Marqos 8:30, Marqos 9:9, Luqas (Luke) 5:14, Luqas 8:10, Luqas 8:56, Luqas 9:21, Luqas (Luke) 10:21, II Luqas (Acts) 23:22



V. Some Rules Used to Find Remez


Remez is a method of textual interpretation long used by Jewish students. The student’s mind is set in the mode of “search”. He needs to look for “…a hint, a symbol, or something hidden” in a specific word or passage, that is connective in types. Does a word or phrase really have a second meaning different from it’s literal meaning? The following rules are some that the reader will draw on as he searches and finds remez:


1.      Look to Israel as the signs and symbols. Yeshayahu (Isaiah) 8:18; Devarim (Deuteronomy) 28:46. Such functions as history, holy days, Temple construction, objects, and the like.

2.      Look for a redeemer (Mashiach) as well as anti-Mashiach types.

3.      Examine numbers as symbols to convey more information.

4.      Examine words used as metaphors, e.g., bread as Bread of Life, water as Living Water.

5.      Determine the Hebrew meaning of people’s names, place names, tribes, etc. These are usually proper nouns, commonly found in Gesenius Hebrew-Chaldee Lexicon to the OT.

6.      Note the role of the good women (faithful) vs. the bad women (unfaithful – harlot, prostitute, or whore).

7.      Look for the allegorical story contained in the TaNaK to those found in the Nazarean Codicil.

8.      Look for an adversary in the stories.

9.      Closely examine the true definition of words in Scripture, especially figures of speech.

10.   Note that the stories are types of “… what has been before, will be again” Kohelet (Ecclesiastes) 1:9-10

11.   Correct translations of Hebrew and Greek text is essential to be able to find symbols.

12.   Examine short stories and parables as conveying a second coming (Kingdom) message.





VI. The Story of Joshua and Rehab


After forty years of wandering in the wilderness, Joshua brought the Children of Israel into the promised land, Israel.


Joshua begins his conquest of the promised land by sending out two spies. In contrast to the ten, named, spies that Moses sent, these two spies remain nameless. This alludes to their status as witnesses, two being the number for witnesses:


Devarim (Deuteronomy) 19:15 One witness is not enough to convict a man accused of any crime or offense he may have committed. A matter must be established by the testimony of two or three witnesses.


According to the Midrash, the two spies were Caleb and Phinehas.[14]


VII. Chronology of Rehab[15]


The following chart shows the chronology of the story of Rehab and Yericho:






Spies are dispatched.

Nisan 6

Spies arrive at Rehab’s house.

Nisan 6

Mourning for Moses ends.

Nisan 7

Spies flee to the hills.

Nisan 7

Spies hide for 3 days.

Nisan 7, 8, 9

Pursuers search for 3 days.

Nisan 7, 8, 9

Officers go thru the camp 3 days.

Nisan 7, 8, 9

Spies return to Yehoshua (Joshua)

Nisan 9

Yehoshua (Joshua) leads Israelites to the Jordan.

Nisan 9

Israelites cross the Jordan.

Nisan 10

Israelites camp at Gilgal.

Nisan 10

Israelites are circumcised.

Nisan 10/11

Israelites celebrate Passover. It is the weekly and Pesach Sabbath.

Nisan 14+15

Israelites begin to circle Yericho.

Nisan 15

Israelites eat new grain (barley).

Nisan 16

Israelites circle Yericho 2nd day.

Nisan 16

Manna ceases.

Nisan 17

Israelites circle Yericho 3rd day.

Nisan 17

Israelites circle Yericho 4th day.

Nisan 18

Israelites circle Yericho 5th day.

Nisan 19

Israelites circle Yericho 6th day.

Nisan 20

Israelites circle Yericho 7th day. It is the weekly and Pesach seventh day Sabbath.

Nisan 21

Israelites bring Rehab out.

Nisan 21


VIII. Rehab’s Redemption


The story of Rehab, and the two spies, provides an excellent insight into remez and its effects on Torah. My translation will be in parenthesis:


Yehoshua (Joshua) 2:1-24 Then Joshua son of Nun secretly sent two spies[16] from Shittim. “Go, look over the land,” he said, “especially Jericho.” So they went and entered the house of a prostitute named Rehab and stayed there. The king of Jericho was told, “Look! Some of the Sons of Israel have come here tonight to spy out the land.” So the king of Jericho sent this message to Rehab: “Bring out the men who came to you and entered your house, because they have come to spy out the whole land.” But the woman had taken the two men and hidden them. She said, “Yes, the men came to me, but I did not know where they had come from. At dusk, when it was time to close the city gate, the men left. I don’t know which way they went. Go after them quickly. You may catch up with them.” (But she had taken them up to the roof and hidden them under the stalks of flax she had laid out on the roof.) So the men set out in pursuit of the spies on the road that leads to the fords of the Jordan, and as soon as the pursuers had gone out, the gate was shut. Before the spies lay down for the night, she went up on the roof And said to them, “I know that HaShem has given this land to you and that a great fear of you has fallen on us, so that all who live in this country are melting in fear because of you. We have heard how HaShem dried up the water of the Reed Sea for you when you came out of Egypt, and what you did to Sihon and Og, the two kings of the Amorites east of the Jordan, whom you completely destroyed. When we heard of it, our hearts melted and everyone’s courage failed because of you, for HaShem your God is God in heaven above and on the earth below. Now then, please swear to me by HaShem that you will show kindness to my family, because I have shown kindness to you. Give me a sure sign That you will spare the lives of my father and mother, my brothers and sisters, and all who belong to them, and that you will save us from death.” “Our lives for your lives!” the men assured her. “If you don’t tell what we are doing, we will treat you kindly and faithfully when HaShem gives us the land.” So she let them down by a rope through the window, for the house she lived in was part of the city wall. Now she had said to them, “Go to the hills so the pursuers will not find you. Hide yourselves there three days until they return, and then go on your way.” The men said to her, “This oath you made us swear will not be binding on us Unless, when we enter the land, you have tied this scarlet cord[17] in the window through which you let us down, and unless you have brought your father and mother, your brothers and all your family into your house. If anyone goes outside your house into the street, his blood will be on his own head; we will not be responsible. As for anyone who is in the house with you, his blood will be on our head if a hand is laid on him. But if you tell what we are doing, we will be released from the oath you made us swear.” “Agreed,” she replied. “Let it be as you say.” So she sent them away and they departed. And she tied the scarlet cord in the window. When they left, they went into the hills and stayed there three days, until the pursuers had searched all along the road and returned without finding them. Then the two men started back. They went down out of the hills, forded the river and came to Joshua son of Nun and told him everything that had happened to them. They said to Yehoshua, “HaShem has surely given the whole land into our hands; all the people are melting in fear because of us.”


Lets see:


Three days when the bad guys can’t see.

Scarlet red on the house for protection.

Those in the house are safe.

Those outside are doomed.

The wicked acknowledge HaShem.


Does this sound like a familiar story?

Now, this story takes place near the time of Passover[18], about Nisan 15[19]. The seven days are concluded when we reach the seventh day of Passover, a Sabbath.[20]


The contents of the entire city, including Rehab and her family, are devoted to HaShem - Yehoshua (Joshua) 6:17.


Terror comes over all the inhabitants because of HaShem’s people. Yehoshua (Joshua) 2:9


The “wall” recedes and the Israelites march straight ahead Yehoshua (Joshua) 6:20, on the seventh day of Passover..


There is massive gold and silver that is devoted to HaShem - Yehoshua (Joshua) 6:19.


Every living thing of the “bad guys” is killed, including the bad guys - Yehoshua (Joshua) 6:21.


The righteous are “brought out” - Yehoshua (Joshua) 6:22-23.


Yehoshua (Joshua)’s curse condemn the “firstborn” of the wicked who rebuild the city (Yehoshua (Joshua) 6:26).


The people are afraid because HaShem dried up the Sea of Reeds before them. - Yehoshua (Joshua) 2:10


Does this sound like a familiar story? It certainly reminds me of the Passover in Egypt in the days of Moses.


Lets look at some more of this story to see some more of the remez:


The spies arrived at dusk just before Neilah service on Yom HaKippurim. The gate is another symbol of Yom HaKippurim. The spies went their own way, the way of the world.


The robe of the Kohen Gadole was made out of flax (linen), the same material that the spies hid under. This is a hint that they will be made priests. The spies were brought into Rehab’s house (Temple) on this side are the Jews. So, we will be grafted in to Israel. These are the two witnesses against HaShem’s people.


Night is the period of exile (“That day will be like night”).


The spies adjure Rehab to keep silent because the gate is closed. (neilah).


Yehoshua (Joshua). married Rehab, the Jewish convert who had played the harlot. Yehoshua (Joshua) is a type of His Majesty King Yeshua, The Mashiach. Rehab is a type of the congregation of Israel, the ecclessia, who becomes His bride:


Megilah 14b R. Nahman said: Hulda was a descendant of Joshua. It is written here [in connection with Hulda]. The son of Harhas,[21] and it is written in another place [in connection with Joshua], In Timnath-Heres.[22] R. ‘Ena Saba cited the following in objection to R. Nahman: ‘Eight prophets who were also priests were descended from Rehab the harlot, namely, Neriah, Baruch, Serayah, Mahseyah, Jeremiah, Hilkiah, Hanamel and Shallum.’ R. Judah says: Hulda the prophetess was also one of the descendants of Rehab the harlot. [We know this] because it is written here ‘the son of Tikvah’ and it is written elsewhere [in connection with Rehab]. ‘the line [tikvath] of scarlet thread’![23] — He replied: ‘‘Ena Saba’[24] — or, according to another report. ‘Black bowl’,[25] — the truth can be found by combining my statement and yours’.[26] We must suppose that she became a proselyte and Joshua married her. But had Joshua any children? Is it not written, Nun his son, Joshua his son?[27] — He had no sons, but he had daughters.


IX. Connections for Yericho and Pesach


In the following passage, note the juxtaposition of the walls of Jericho and the parting of the Reed Sea:


Berachoth 54a CHAPTER IX Our Rabbis taught: If one sees the place of the crossing of the Red Sea, or the fords of the Jordan, or the fords of the streams of Arnon, or hail stones [abne elgabish] in the descent of Beth Horon, or the stone which Og king of Bashan wanted to throw at Israel, or the stone on which Moses sat when Joshua fought with Amalek, or [the pillar of salt of] Lot’s wife,[28] or the wall of Jericho which sank into the ground,[29] for all of these he should give thanksgiving and praise to the Almighty. I grant you the passage of the Red Sea, because it is written, And the children of Israel went into the midst of the sea upon the dry ground;[30] also the fords of the Jordan, because it is written, And the priests that bore the ark of the covenant of the Lord stood firm on dry ground in the midst of the Jordan, while all Israel passed over on dry ground, until all the nation were passed clean over the Jordan.[31]


X. Yericho and Rosh Chodesh


In the following verse, we have an allusion to the practice of having two witnesses to sight the new moon, on Rosh Chodesh, and report their findings to the one(s) in charge:


Yehoshua (Joshua) 2:1 And Joshua the son of Nun sent out of Shittim two men to spy secretly, saying, Go view the land, Jericho (the moon – month). And they went, and came into an harlot’s house, named Rehab, and lodged there.


Rashi says the phrasing of the “two men” indicates that they were men of integrity. The Sanhedrin also required the two witnesses, of the new moon, to be men of integrity. Further, the Talmud, in Rosh Hashanah 23b, indicates that they were entertained lavishly, such as one might be in an inn (harlots often ran the local inn).


Shittim is near Mount Nebo, where Moses had been buried 30 days previously. Bamidbar (Numbers) 33:49 calls this the “mourning of Shittim”. Now, at Rosh Chodesh we witness the “birth” of the moon just shortly after it “died”.


Yehoshua (Joshua) 2:5-6 And it came to pass [about the time] of shutting of the gate, when it was dark, that the men went out: whither the men went I wot not: pursue after them quickly; for ye shall overtake them. But she had brought them up to the roof of the house, and hid them with the stalks of flax, which she had laid in order upon the roof.


These verses indicate that the men were in the perfect place to view the new moon, at the perfect time, close to sundown.


XI. Succoth


Yehoshua (Joshua) 2:6 But she had brought them up to the roof of the house, and hid them with the stalks of flax, which she had laid in order upon the roof.


This verse also seems to contain an allusion to Hag HaSuccoth, the Feast of Tabernacles. Spending the night under a roof of orderly, green, cut plants is one of the principle mitzvot of Hag HaSuccoth.


XII. The Tree of Life


Moses’ staff

The tree of crucifixion


XIII. Jews and Gentiles


The lamb, and sheep are always Jews. All other animals are Gentiles. The lion will lay down with the lamb. The Jew will lie down with the Gentiles.


XIV. The Prodigals Son


Luqas (Luke) 15:11-32 Yeshua continued: “There was a man who had two sons. The younger one said to his father, ‘Father, give me my share of the estate.’ So he divided his property between them. “Not long after that, the younger son got together all he had, set off for a distant country and there squandered his wealth in wild living. After he had spent everything, there was a severe famine in that whole country, and he began to be in need. So he went and hired himself out to a citizen of that country, who sent him to his fields to feed pigs. He longed to fill his stomach with the pods that the pigs were eating, but no one gave him anything. “When he came to his senses, he said, ‘How many of my father’s hired men have food to spare, and here I am starving to death! I will set out and go back to my father and say to him: Father, I have sinned against heaven and against you. I am no longer worthy to be called your son; make me like one of your hired men.’ So he got up and went to his father. “But while he was still a long way off, his father saw him and was filled with compassion for him; he ran to his son, threw his arms around him and kissed him. “The son said to him, ‘Father, I have sinned against heaven and against you. I am no longer worthy to be called your son.’ “But the father said to his servants, ‘Quick! Bring the best robe and put it on him. Put a ring on his finger and sandals on his feet. Bring the fattened calf and kill it. Let’s have a feast and celebrate. For this son of mine was dead and is alive again; he was lost and is found.’ So they began to celebrate. “Meanwhile, the older son was in the field. When he came near the house, he heard music and dancing. So he called one of the servants and asked him what was going on. ‘Your brother has come,’ he replied, ‘and your father has killed the fattened calf because he has him back safe and sound.’ “The older brother became angry and refused to go in. So his father went out and pleaded with him. But he answered his father, ‘Look! All these years I’ve been slaving for you and never disobeyed your orders. Yet you never gave me even a young goat so I could celebrate with my friends. But when this son of yours who has squandered your property with prostitutes comes home, you kill the fattened calf for him!’ “‘My son,’ the father said, ‘you are always with me, and everything I have is yours. But we had to celebrate and be glad, because this brother of yours was dead and is alive again; he was lost and is found.’”


Older son = Jew

Younger son = Gentiles


Gentiles left the father shortly after receiving his inheritance. He left Torah


Loose living = going your own way.


Ate the fruit of his own way.


Wanting to eat with pigs = You have hit rock bottom.


Older son never forsook Torah. This “son of Yours” returns to Torah –


Brother was dead = left Torah.


XV. The Fast of Gedaliah


The Fast of Gedaliah is the story of the head wound of Anti-Mashiach:


2 Melachim (Kings) 25:22-26 Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon appointed Gedaliah son of Ahikam, the son of Shaphan, to be over the people he had left behind in Judah. When all the army officers and their men heard that the king of Babylon had appointed Gedaliah as governor, they came to Gedaliah at Mizpah--Ishmael son of Nethaniah, Johanan son of Kareah, Seraiah son of Tanhumeth the Netophathite, Jaazaniah the son of the Maacathite, and their men. Gedaliah took an oath to reassure them and their men. “Do not be afraid of the Babylonian officials,” he said. “Settle down in the land and serve the king of Babylon, and it will go well with you.” In the seventh month, however, Ishmael son of Nethaniah, the son of Elishama, who was of royal blood, came with ten men and assassinated Gedaliah and also the men of Judah and the Babylonians who were with him at Mizpah. At this, all the people from the least to the greatest, together with the army officers, fled to Egypt for fear of the Babylonians.


Yirmeyahu (Jeremiah) 39:11-18 Now Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon had given these orders about Jeremiah through Nebuzaradan commander of the imperial guard: “Take him and look after him; don’t harm him but do for him whatever he asks.” So Nebuzaradan the commander of the guard, Nebushazban a chief officer, Nergal-Sharezer a high official and all the other officers of the king of Babylon Sent and had Jeremiah taken out of the courtyard of the guard. They turned him over to Gedaliah son of Ahikam, the son of Shaphan, to take him back to his home. So he remained among his own people. While Jeremiah had been confined in the courtyard of the guard, the word of HaShem came to him: “Go and tell Ebed-Melech the Cushite, ‘This is what HaShem Almighty, the God of Israel, says: I am about to fulfill my words against this city through disaster, not prosperity. At that time they will be fulfilled before your eyes. But I will rescue you on that day, declares HaShem; you will not be handed over to those you fear. I will save you; you will not fall by the sword but will escape with your life, because you trust in me, declares HaShem.’”


Yirmeyahu (Jeremiah) 40:1 - 41:9 The word came to Jeremiah from HaShem after Nebuzaradan commander of the imperial guard had released him at Ramah. He had found Jeremiah bound in chains among all the captives from Jerusalem and Judah who were being carried into exile to Babylon. When the commander of the guard found Jeremiah, he said to him, “HaShem your God decreed this disaster for this place. And now HaShem has brought it about; he has done just as he said he would. All this happened because you people sinned against HaShem and did not obey him. But today I am freeing you from the chains on your wrists. Come with me to Babylon, if you like, and I will look after you; but if you do not want to, then don’t come. Look, the whole country lies before you; go wherever you please.” However, before Jeremiah turned to go, Nebuzaradan added, “Go back to Gedaliah son of Ahikam, the son of Shaphan, whom the king of Babylon has appointed over the towns of Judah, and live with him among the people, or go anywhere else you please.” Then the commander gave him provisions and a present and let him go. So Jeremiah went to Gedaliah son of Ahikam at Mizpah and stayed with him among the people who were left behind in the land. When all the army officers and their men who were still in the open country heard that the king of Babylon had appointed Gedaliah son of Ahikam as governor over the land and had put him in charge of the men, women and children who were the poorest in the land and who had not been carried into exile to Babylon, They came to Gedaliah at Mizpah--Ishmael son of Nethaniah, Johanan and Jonathan the sons of Kareah, Seraiah son of Tanhumeth, the sons of Ephai the Netophathite, and Jaazaniah the son of the Maacathite, and their men. Gedaliah son of Ahikam, the son of Shaphan, took an oath to reassure them and their men. “Do not be afraid to serve the Babylonians,” he said. “Settle down in the land and serve the king of Babylon, and it will go well with you. I myself will stay at Mizpah to represent you before the Babylonians who come to us, but you are to harvest the wine, summer fruit and oil, and put them in your storage jars, and live in the towns you have taken over.” When all the Jews in Moab, Ammon, Edom and all the other countries heard that the king of Babylon had left a remnant in Judah and had appointed Gedaliah son of Ahikam, the son of Shaphan, as governor over them, They all came back to the land of Judah, to Gedaliah at Mizpah, from all the countries where they had been scattered. And they harvested an abundance of wine and summer fruit. Johanan son of Kareah and all the army officers still in the open country came to Gedaliah at Mizpah And said to him, “Don’t you know that Baalis king of the Ammonites has sent Ishmael son of Nethaniah to take your life?” But Gedaliah son of Ahikam did not believe them. Then Johanan son of Kareah said privately to Gedaliah in Mizpah, “Let me go and kill Ishmael son of Nethaniah, and no one will know it. Why should he take your life and cause all the Jews who are gathered around you to be scattered and the remnant of Judah to perish?” But Gedaliah son of Ahikam said to Johanan son of Kareah, “Don’t do such a thing! What you are saying about Ishmael is not true.” In the seventh month Ishmael son of Nethaniah, the son of Elishama, who was of royal blood and had been one of the king’s officers, came with ten men to Gedaliah son of Ahikam at Mizpah. While they were eating together there, Ishmael son of Nethaniah and the ten men who were with him got up and struck down Gedaliah son of Ahikam, the son of Shaphan, with the sword, killing the one whom the king of Babylon had appointed as governor over the land. Ishmael also killed all the Jews who were with Gedaliah at Mizpah, as well as the Babylonian soldiers who were there. The day after Gedaliah’s assassination, before anyone knew about it, Eighty men who had shaved off their beards, torn their clothes and cut themselves came from Shechem, Shiloh and Samaria, bringing grain offerings and incense with them to the house of HaShem. Ishmael son of Nethaniah went out from Mizpah to meet them, weeping as he went. When he met them, he said, “Come to Gedaliah son of Ahikam.” When they went into the city, Ishmael son of Nethaniah and the men who were with him slaughtered them and threw them into a cistern. But ten of them said to Ishmael, “Don’t kill us! We have wheat and barley, oil and honey, hidden in a field.” So he let them alone and did not kill them with the others. Now the cistern where he threw all the bodies of the men he had killed along with Gedaliah was the one King Asa had made as part of his defense against Baasha king of Israel. Ishmael son of Nethaniah filled it with the dead.


Rosh Hashanah 18b ‘The fast of the seventh month’: this is the third of Tishri on which Gedaliah the son of Ahikam was killed.[32] Who killed him? Ishmael the son of Nethaniah killed him; and [the fact that a fast was instituted on this day] shows that the death of the righteous is put on a level with the burning of the House of our God. Why is it called the seventh? As being the seventh in the order of months.


XVI. The Temple and Mashiach


Women’s court – harlot and the faithful women Ketubah.


Waiting at the door – Nicanor gate


The called out ones at Sinai. He stands at the gate calling.


The Torah scroll is buried when it becomes unusable, just like Mashiach was buried.


Went to the lost sheep of Israel.


XVII. Symbols


Symbols are extremely important throughout scripture:


The use of remez in the scripture is illustrated by looking at the meaning of names. The meaning of the name: Rachel, for example, can be found by examining Strong’s definition:


Bereshit (Genesis) 29:6 And he said unto them, [Is] he well? And they said, [He is] well: and, behold, Rachel his daughter cometh with the sheep.


 7354 Rachel, raw-khale’; the same as 7353; Rachel, a wife of Jacob:-Rachel.


-------------- Dictionary Trace ------------------

 7353 rachel, raw-kale’; from an unused root mean. to journey; a ewe [the females being the predominant element of a flock] (as a good traveler):- ewe, sheep.


Strong’s number 7353 is a “ewe”, a female sheep. This word is used in the following verses:


Bereshit (Genesis) 31:38 This twenty years [have] I [been] with thee; thy ewes (rachel) and thy she goats have not cast their young, and the rams of thy flock have I not eaten.


Bereshit (Genesis) 32:14 Two hundred she goats, and twenty he goats, two hundred ewes (rachel), and twenty rams,


Further, we know that the suffix “el” is used as a name for HaShem when He exercizes the attribute of strict justice. So, the remez of Rachel might be: Rachel = ewe + God = The lamb of God


Bereshit (Genesis) 35:18 And it came to pass, as her soul was in departing, (for she died) that she called his name Ben-oni: but his father called him Benjamin.


Rachel died in childbirth while delivering: Ben oni = Son of my sorrow


Yaakov (Jacob) did not call him Ben oni, he call him: Benyamin = Son of my right hand


The “Lamb of God” died to give birth to “The Son of My Sorrows” (Ben oni), while His Father called Him “The Son of My Right Hand” (Binyamin). The two sons had to do with the two comings. In the first coming, Mashiach was “The Son of My Sorrows” (Ben oni). In the second coming, Mashiach will be “The Son of My Right Hand” (Binyamin).


* * *


Here are the two comings represented in Yoseph and in Benjamin.


Check out who was a Benjamite: Paul was a Benjamite. Saul was a Benjamite. Mordechai was a Benjamite.


When Jacob separated from Esau, Jacob went to Succoth – the mountain of Succoth.


* * *


The story of Yoseph provides an intriguing glimpse into the life of Yeshua, the Mashiach. When Yoseph first went to bring his father, Yaakov, news about his ten sons, Yoseph found his brothers in:


Bereshit (Genesis) 37:13-17 And Israel said unto Yoseph, Do not thy brethren feed [the flock] in Shechem? come, and I will send thee unto them. And he said to him, Here [am I]. And he said to him, Go, I pray thee, see whether it be well with thy brethren, and well with the flocks; and bring me word again. So he sent him out of the vale of Hebron, and he came to Shechem. And a certain man found him, and, behold, [he was] wandering in the field: and the man asked him, saying, What seekest thou? And he said, I seek my brethren: tell me, I pray thee, where they feed [their flocks]. And the man said, They are departed hence; for I heard them say, Let us go to Dothan. And Yoseph went after his brethren, and found them in Dothan.


Strong’s give the following definition of “Dothan”:


1886 Dothan, do’-thawn; or (Chaldaizing dual) Dothayin (Gen. 37:17), do-thah’-yin; of uncert. der.; Dothan, a place in Pal.:-Dothan.


Dothan means “dual well”, according to Gesenius, – a mikveh.


Midrash Rabbah - Bereshit (Genesis) LXXXIV:14 R. Jannai said: He was met by three angels, for Scripture says, AND A CERTAIN MAN FOUND HIM... AND THE MAN ASKED HIM... AND THE MAN SAID.[33] LET US GO TO DOTHAN. For such are the designs of the Almighty.[34] AND THEY SAW HIM AFAR OFF, etc. (XXXVII, 18). Said they: ‘Let us kill him by inciting the dogs against him’.[35] AND THEY SAID ONE TO ANOTHER: BEHOLD, THIS DREAMER COMETH (XXXVII, 19). The Rabbi said: They exclaimed, ‘Behold, it is he, who is coming wrapped in his dreams!’ R. Levi said: They exclaimed that this one was to ensnare them into serving [foreign] overlords.[36] COME NOW THEREFORE, AND LET US SLAY HIM... AND WE SHALL SEE WHAT WILL BECOME OF HIS DREAMS (XXXVII, 20). Said the Holy One, blessed be He, to them: Ye say, AND WE SHALL SEE, and I say, WE SHALL SEE: indeed we shall see whose words will be fulfilled.’


Now, after Yoseph found his brothers, they threw him into a pit, in Dothan[37]:


Bereshit (Genesis) 37:18-24 And when they saw him afar off, even before he came near unto them, they conspired against him to slay him. And they said one to another, Behold, this dreamer cometh. Come now therefore, and let us slay him, and cast him into some pit, and we will say, Some evil beast hath devoured him: and we shall see what will become of his dreams. And Reuben heard [it], and he delivered him out of their hands; and said, Let us not kill him. And Reuben said unto them, Shed no blood, [but] cast him into this pit that [is] in the wilderness, and lay no hand upon him; that he might rid him out of their hands, to deliver him to his father again. And it came to pass, when Yoseph was come unto his brethren, that they stripped Yoseph out of his coat, [his] coat of [many] colours that [was] on him; And they took him, and cast him into a pit: and the pit [was] empty, [there was] no water in it.


The text implies that this was a “Dothan”, or dual pit. That is an apt description of a mikveh (the gathering of waters which is used for ritual immersion), which is made out of two, nearly identical, pits, side by side. Yoseph was thrown into the pit, in Dothan, by his brothers, Jews if you will. Indeed the Midrash tells us where the water was, as we shall see shortly.


Later, in Egypt, Yoseph will be thrown into another pit:


Bereshit (Genesis) 39:20 And Yoseph’s master took him, and put him into the prison, a place where the king’s prisoners [were] bound: and he was there in the prison.


1004 bayith, bah’-yith; prob. from 1129 abbrev.; a house (in the greatest var. of applications, espec. family, etc.):-court, daughter, door, + dungeon, family, + forth of, X great as would contain, hangings, home [born], [winter] house (-hold), inside (-ward), palace, place, + prison, + steward, + tablet, temple, web, + within (-out).


5470 cohar, so’-har; from the same as 5469; a dungeon (as surrounded by walls):-prison.


In this scenario, we see that Yoseph is thrown into a prison. The common prison was often just a pit with a narrow opening in the top. There is some implication, then, that Yoseph was thrown into a second pit. This is another inference to a mikveh.


I see in this story that Yoseph, who is a type of Mashiach, is cast as a dead man into a mikveh. There was no water in the mikveh:


Bereshit (Genesis) 37:24 And they took him, and cast him into a pit: and the pit [was] empty, [there was] no water in it.


Mashiach (Yoseph) is the living water in the mikveh (pit), which had no water before He was thrown in:


Yochanan (John) 4:9-15 Then saith the woman of Samaria unto him, How is it that thou, being a Jew, askest drink of me, which am a woman of Samaria? For the Jews have no dealings with the Samaritans. Yeshua answered and said unto her, If thou knewest the gift of God, and who it is that saith to thee, Give me to drink; thou wouldest have asked of him, and he would have given thee living water. The woman saith unto him, Sir, thou hast nothing to draw with, and the well is deep: from whence then hast thou that living water? Art thou greater than our father Jacob, which gave us the well, and drank thereof himself, and his children, and his cattle? Yeshua answered and said unto her, Whosoever drinketh of this water shall thirst again: But whosoever drinketh of the water that I shall give him shall never thirst; but the water that I shall give him shall be in him a well of water springing up into everlasting life. The woman saith unto him, Sir, give me this water, that I thirst not, neither come hither to draw.


The Midrash sees this same perspective:


Midrash Rabbah - Genesis LXXXIV:16 AND IT CAME TO PASS, WHEN YOSEPH WAS COME, etc. (XXXVII, 23). R. Leazar said: He came full of praises. THAT THEY STRIPPED YOSEPH-that refers to his cloak; HIS COAT, to his shirt; THE COAT OF MANY COLOURS-the tunic; THAT WAS ON HIM -his breeches. AND THEY TOOK HIM (XXXVII, 24). Who was it? Simeon. When did He repay him?- [On the occasion when we read], And he took Simeon from among them, and bound him before their eyes (Gen. XLII, 24). AND THEY CAST HIM INTO THE PIT-AND THE PIT WAS EMPTY, THERE WAS NO WATER IN IT. There was indeed no water in it, but snakes and serpents were in it. There were two pits, one full of pebbles, and the other full of snakes and scorpions.1 R. Aha interpreted: AND THE PIT WAS EMPTY-Jacob’s pit was emptied. THERE WAS NO WATER IN IT-there were in it no Torah teachings, which are likened to water, as you read, Ho, every one that thirsteth, come ye for water (Isa. LV, 1). It is written, If a man be found stealing any of his brethren of the children of Israel... and sell him, then that thief shall die (Deut. XXIV, 7), yet ye sell your brother!


The tomb, Mashiach was put in, was meant for two people – a dual pit. The dead go in and the living come up out of the pit. This is the same scenario found in a mikveh: after coming from the mikveh, we have returned to the state we had in the Garden of Eden – life before sin. Lets see how Paul put it:


Romans 6:1-4 What shall we say, then? Shall we go on sinning so that grace may increase? By no means! We died to sin; how can we live in it any longer? Or don’t you know that all of us who were baptized into Mashiach Yeshua were baptized into his death? We were therefore buried with him through baptism into death in order that, just as Mashiach was raised from the dead through the glory of the Father, we too may live a new life.


Both Yoseph and Mashiach had a coat which was left behind. In fact, we understand that Mashiach’s coat was a talit of many colors.


To understand my next picture, we need to look at the definition of names first. Simeon, in Hebrew, is the same as Simon in the Greek:


Bereshit (Genesis) 29:33 And she conceived again, and bare a son; and said, Because HaShem hath heard that I [was] hated, he hath therefore given me this [son] also: and she called his name Simeon.


8095 Shim`own, shim-one’; from 8085 hearing; Shimon, one of Jacob’s sons, also the tribe desc. from him:-Simeon.


--------------- Dictionary Trace -----------------

8085 shama`, shaw-mah’; a prim. root; to hear intelligently (often with impl. of attention, obedience, etc.; caus. to tell, etc.):-X attentively, call (gather) together, X carefully, X certainly, consent, consider, be content, declare, X diligently, discern, give ear, (cause to, let, make to) hear (-ken, tell), X indeed, listen, make (a) noise, (be) obedient, obey, perceive, (make a) proclaim (-ation), publish, regard, report, shew (forth), (make a) sound, X surely, tell, understand, whosoever [heareth], witness.


The Greek name “Simon” is also the Hebrew name “Simeon”, according to Strong’s:


Matityahu (Matthew) 4:18 And Yeshua, walking by the sea of Galilee, saw two brethren, Simon called Tzefet (Peter), and Andrew his brother, casting a net into the sea: for they were fishers.


4613 Simon, see’-mone; of Heb. or. [8095]; Simon (i.e. Shimon), the name of nine Isr.:-Simon. Comp 4826.

 --------------- Dictionary Trace ----------------

8095 Shim`own, shim-one’; from 8085 hearing; Shimon, one of Jacob’s sons, also the tribe desc. from him:-Simeon.


Simon Tzefet (Peter) said:


Matityahu (Matthew) 16:16 Simon Tzefet (Peter) answered, “You are the Mashiach, the Son of the living God.”


So, Tzefet (Peter) said, “Behold the Son”

Reuben – means “behold a son”


So Tzefet (Peter) and Reuben are linked: They, Tzefet (Peter) and Reuben both looked down and found that the pit was empty:


Bereshit (Genesis) 37:29 And Reuben returned unto the pit; and, behold, Yoseph [was] not in the pit; and he rent his clothes.


Luqas (Luke) 24:12 Then arose Tzefet (Peter), and ran unto the sepulcher; and stooping down, he beheld the linen clothes laid by themselves, and departed, wondering in himself at that which was come to pass.


* * *


Yoseph put the Gentiles on one side and the Jews on the other side at the “banquet”, with Yoseph at the head:


Bereshit (Genesis) 43:31-33 After he had washed his face, he came out and, controlling himself, said, “Serve the food.” They served him by himself, the brothers by themselves, and the Egyptians who ate with him by themselves, because Egyptians could not eat with Hebrews, for that is detestable to Egyptians. The men had been seated before him in the order of their ages, from the firstborn to the youngest; and they looked at each other in astonishment.


Bereshit (Genesis) 43:32 And they set on for him by himself, and for them by themselves, and for the Egyptians, which did eat with him, by themselves: because the Egyptians might not eat bread with the Hebrews; for that [is] an abomination unto the Egyptians.


905 bad, bad; from 909; prop. separation; by impl. a part of the body, branch of a tree, bar for carrying; fig. chief of a city; espec. (with prep. pref.) as adv., apart, only, besides:-alone, apart, bar, besides, branch, by self, of each alike, except, only, part, staff, strength.


---------------- Dictionary Trace ---------------

909 badad, baw-dad’; a prim. root; to divide, i.e. (reflex.) be solitary:- alone.


The picture of this banquet, is the picture of the menorah, with the shamash (Yoseph) in the middle, the Gentiles (the Egyptians) on the left and the Jews (the brothers) on the right.


* * *


Yoseph rode a chariot to meet his father Yaakov. Just like the prodigal son’s father went out to meet his son:


Bereshit (Genesis) 46:29-31 Yoseph had his chariot made ready and went to Goshen to meet his father Israel. As soon as Yoseph appeared before him, he threw his arms around his father and wept for a long time. Israel said to Yoseph, “Now I am ready to die, since I have seen for myself that you are still alive.” Then Yoseph said to his brothers and to his father’s household, “I will go up and speak to Pharaoh and will say to him, ‘My brothers and my father’s household, who were living in the land of Canaan, have come to me.


Now, remember that Luqas (Luke) is written in remez and therefore we should expect it to hint at something else.


Luqas (Luke) 15:20-25 So he got up and went to his father. “But while he was still a long way off, his father saw him and was filled with compassion for him; he ran to his son, threw his arms around him and kissed him. “The son said to him, ‘Father, I have sinned against heaven and against you. I am no longer worthy to be called your son.’ “But the father said to his servants, ‘Quick! Bring the best robe and put it on him. Put a ring on his finger and sandals on his feet. Bring the fattened calf and kill it. Let’s have a feast and celebrate. For this son of mine was dead and is alive again; he was lost and is found.’ So they began to celebrate. “Meanwhile, the older son was in the field. When he came near the house, he heard music and dancing.


The Cup of Remembrance


The first use of the word “cup” is in:


Bereshit (Genesis) 40:11 And Pharaoh’s cup [was] in my hand: and I took the grapes, and pressed them into Pharaoh’s cup, and I gave the cup into Pharaoh’s hand.


3563 kowc, koce; from an unused root mean. to hold together; a cup (as a container), often fig. a lot (as if a potion); also some unclean bird, prob. an owl (perh. from the cup-like cavity of its eye):-cup, (small) owl. Comp. 3599.


--------------- Dictionary Trace --------------

3599 kiyc, keece; a form for 3563; a cup; also a bag for money or weights:- bag, cup, purse.


In this following passage, Yoseph is asking the one who bears the cup to remember him:


Bereshit (Genesis) 40:12-14 “This is what it means,” Yoseph said to him. “The three branches are three days. Within three days Pharaoh will lift up your head and restore you to your position, and you will put Pharaoh’s cup in his hand, just as you used to do when you were his cupbearer. But when all goes well with you, remember me and show me kindness; mention me to Pharaoh and get me out of this prison.


In Bereshit (Genesis) 40, Yoseph will be “remembered” by the cup bearer. This is the cup which causes remembrance:


Bereshit (Genesis) 41:9-14 Then the chief cupbearer said to Pharaoh, “Today I am reminded of my shortcomings. Pharaoh was once angry with his servants, and he imprisoned me and the chief baker in the house of the captain of the guard. Each of us had a dream the same night, and each dream had a meaning of its own. Now a young Hebrew was there with us, a servant of the captain of the guard. We told him our dreams, and he interpreted them for us, giving each man the interpretation of his dream. And things turned out exactly as he interpreted them to us: I was restored to my position, and the other man was hanged.” So Pharaoh sent for Yoseph, and he was quickly brought from the dungeon. When he had shaved and changed his clothes, he came before Pharaoh.


Now after the cup bearer remembers Yoseph, we see Yoseph again use a different cup:


Bereshit (Genesis) 44:2 And put my cup, the silver cup, in the sack’s mouth of the youngest, and his corn money. And he did according to the word that Yoseph had spoken.


1375 gebiya, gheb-ee’-ah; from an unused root (mean. to be convex); a goblet; by anal. the calyx of a flower:-house, cup, pot.


This, too, is the first use of this word for cup.


Yoseph had the “cup of remembrance” which he took from the two witnesses.


* * *


Bereshit (Genesis) 41:42 Then Pharaoh took his signet ring from his finger and put it on Yoseph’s finger. He dressed him in robes of fine linen and put a gold chain around his neck.


The breastplate was held by a gold chain – Yoseph was a type of the High Priest.


7242 rabiyd, raw-beed’; from 7234; a collar (as spread around the neck):- chain.


Bereshit (Genesis) 41:42 And Pharaoh took off his ring from his hand, and put it upon Yoseph’s hand, and arrayed him in vestures of fine linen, and put a gold chain about his neck;


Yechezkel (Ezekiel) 16:11 I decked thee also with ornaments, and I put bracelets upon thy hands, and a chain on thy neck.


Follow a finger – No one could lift a finger without Yoseph.


Zeroa (usually translated arm or foreleg) means sower.


You are already clean before you go into a mikveh – you have already repented before you come to the living water. The entrance to the Temple was through the mikveh.


How much wine would it take to corrupt a mikveh? – Mishna


All seas have to do with the sea of humanity.


Clouds are heavenly host.


HaShem will blow the soul into the body at the resurrection, like He blew the soul into Adam to give him life.


Isaac could not tell the difference between Jacob and Esau. Between the goat and the one who felt like a goat, this is related to Yom HaKippurim.


Tashlikh – sea, bread, and fish. Sea = humanity.


Revelation 19:1 great sound – Yehoshua (Joshua) at Jericho and gave a great shout – Yehoshua (Joshua) was there to shout.


Yoseph set the Gentiles on one side, the Jews on the other side like the menorah with Mashiach (Yoseph) in the center.


Three = means a representation of something else. 3 lights on the right – sheep, the 3 on the left are the goats.


1 Melachim (Kings) 7:21 And he set up the pillars in the porch of the temple: and he set up the right pillar, and called the name thereof Jachin: and he set up the left pillar, and called the name thereof Boaz.


Two columns – Boaz and Jaukin – body of the Mashiach. Columns did not hold up anything. The right column was Jaukin. Boaz married a Gentile – the lineage of Mashiach. 8th priest of David.


* * *


Fish are resurrected men.


Sea is a place where the dead are, it is also the place of birth – see the Song of Moses.


Salvation is in a ship – a protective abode (Ken says that there are thirty-six (36) in scripture):

            Noah’s ark.

            Lot’s house (angels).

            Passover houses.

            Rehab’s house.


            In Mashiach we have a protective abode.

            Resurrected bodies with the “sign“ on


1. Lot’s house (night) Gen. 19:1, 3, 4, 5.....

2. Shemot (Exodus) homes (night - see 12:8) Ex. 12:8, 19, 19, 31.....

3. Rehab’s house (night) Josh. 2:5, 8; 2:6, 17-20

4. Jonah’s (vine) (night); Jonah 4:6-8 (note vs 7)

5. Parable Matt. 25:1-13 (note v.6 , midnight )

6. Parable Matt. 14:22-36 (note vs 25, night, mid-point into Trib)


 Jonah’s (vine) (night):


Jonah 4:5-8 Jonah went out and sat down at a place east of the city. There he made himself a shelter, sat in its shade and waited to see what would happen to the city. Then HaShem God provided a vine and made it grow up over Jonah to give shade for his head to ease his discomfort, and Jonah was very happy about the vine. But at dawn the next day God provided a worm, which chewed the vine so that it withered. When the sun rose, God provided a scorching east wind, and the sun blazed on Jonah’s head so that he grew faint. He wanted to die, and said, “It would be better for me to die than to live.”




Matt. 25:1-13 “At that time the kingdom of heaven will be like ten virgins who took their lamps and went out to meet the bridegroom. Five of them were foolish and five were wise. The foolish ones took their lamps but did not take any oil with them. The wise, however, took oil in jars along with their lamps. The bridegroom was a long time in coming, and they all became drowsy and fell asleep. “At midnight the cry rang out: ‘Here’s the bridegroom! Come out to meet him!’ “Then all the virgins woke up and trimmed their lamps. The foolish ones said to the wise, ‘Give us some of your oil; our lamps are going out.’ “‘No,’ they replied, ‘there may not be enough for both us and you. Instead, go to those who sell oil and buy some for yourselves.’ “But while they were on their way to buy the oil, the bridegroom arrived. The virgins who were ready went in with him to the wedding banquet. And the door was shut. “Later the others also came. ‘Sir! Sir!’ they said. ‘Open the door for us!’ “But he replied, ‘I tell you the truth, I don’t know you.’ “Therefore keep watch, because you do not know the day or the hour.




Matt. 14:22-36 (note vs 25, night, mid-point into Tribulation) Immediately Yeshua made the disciples get into the boat and go on ahead of him to the other side, while he dismissed the crowd. After he had dismissed them, he went up on a mountainside by himself to pray. When evening came, he was there alone, But the boat was already a considerable distance from land, buffeted by the waves because the wind was against it. During the fourth watch of the night Yeshua went out to them, walking on the lake. When the disciples saw him walking on the lake, they were terrified. “It’s a ghost,” they said, and cried out in fear. But Yeshua immediately said to them: “Take courage! It is I. Don’t be afraid.” “Lord, if it’s you,” Tzefet (Peter) replied, “tell me to come to you on the water.” “Come,” he said. Then Tzefet (Peter) got down out of the boat, walked on the water and came toward Yeshua. But when he saw the wind, he was afraid and, beginning to sink, cried out, “Lord, save me!” Immediately Yeshua reached out his hand and caught him. “You of little faith,” he said, “why did you doubt?” And when they climbed into the boat, the wind died down. Then those who were in the boat worshiped him, saying, “Truly you are the Son of God.”


* * *


The goat for Azazel was pushed over the cliff and “burst open”. This is much the same terminology used of Judas after selling Mashiach. The name HaShem is pronounced on Yom HaKippurim – They are the ones who call upon the name of HaShem. The Kohen Gadole’s bull (Gentile) and the goat for HaShem (Jews) are both burned to ash. They need to be resurrected. Blood and incense were take into the Holy of Holies.


Mashiach’s baptism and anointing took place on Yom HaKippurim.


A Succah is a covering, an atonement.


The “Word” became flesh. Is this a golem?


1335 is when the Torah will be given again. The 1335 ends on Shavuot when we get the new covenant.


Menorah is the Tree of Life.


Five types of “fallen ones” in scripture.


Six months to gain disciples. Began ministry on Nisan 1 with the beginning of the triennial cycle.


XVIII. Jonah


The story of Jonah was used by Mashiach as a sign:


Luqas (Luke) 11:29 As the crowds increased, Yeshua said, “This is a wicked generation. It asks for a miraculous sign, but none will be given it except the sign of Jonah.


Luqas (Luke) 11:30 For as Jonah was a sign to the Ninevites, so also will the Son of Man be to this generation.


Jonah did not want to go to Nineveh because the Ninevites executed people on the execution stake (Biblical Archeology Review). The baker in Yoseph’s story was impaled on a stick.




The book of Jonah is read on Yom HaKippurim, the day that Mashiach was anointed.


Jonah name means “dove”. The dove was important at the ark and also with the Mashiach at His anointing. “Dove in Greek adds up to 801. Omega is 800. Alpha is 1. So, the dove is the Alpha and the omega.


Gesenius says that Amittai means truth. Strong’s agrees::


Jonah 1:1 Now the word of HaShem came unto Jonah the son of Amittai, saying,


573 ‘Amittay, am-it-tah’-ee; from 571; veracious; Amittai, an Isr.:-Amittai.


--------------- Dictionary Trace -----------------

571 ‘emeth, eh’-meth; contr. from 539; stability; fig. certainty, truth, trustworthiness: -assured (-ly), establishment, faithful, right, sure, true (-ly, -th), verity.


Nineveh = Jerusalem

Hebron = Seat of Association

Tarshish = Breaking or subordination

Joppa = Beautiful

Shechem = City of Refuge:


Yehoshua (Joshua) 20:2-8 “Tell the Israelites to designate the cities of refuge, as I instructed you through Moses, So that anyone who kills a person accidentally and unintentionally may flee there and find protection from the avenger of blood. “When he flees to one of these cities, he is to stand in the entrance of the city gate and state his case before the elders of that city. Then they are to admit him into their city and give him a place to live with them. If the avenger of blood pursues him, they must not surrender the one accused, because he killed his neighbor unintentionally and without malice aforethought. He is to stay in that city until he has stood trial before the assembly and until the death of the high priest who is serving at that time. Then he may go back to his own home in the town from which he fled.” So they set apart Kedesh in Galilee in the hill country of Naphtali, Shechem in the hill country of Ephraim, and Kiryat Arba (that is, Hebron) in the hill country of Judah. On the east side of the Jordan of Jericho they designated Bezer in the desert on the plateau in the tribe of Reuben, Ramoth in Gilead in the tribe of Gad, and Golan in Bashan in the tribe of Manasseh. Any of the Israelites or any alien living among them who killed


Yoseph’s brothers brought an evil report about Yoseph, and HaShem got an evil report about Jonah.


Paying the fare = Mashiach paid the price.


Wind = trouble Jeremiah


Ship = Judaism


Threw cargo (something prepared) into the sea = Threw Torah away?


Mashiach and Jonah both went down into the ship to sleep.


When we call on HaShem, we will be saved.


The sailors (Gentiles) cast lots to see when to destroy HaShem’s people – Purim (the lot was cast Nisan 13) and Yom HaKippurim. On Yom HaKippurim the Kohen Gadole choose “who” (goat) is for HaShem and “who” is for Azazel. The sailors were seeking “who” had brought on this evil.


* * *


Yoseph’s cup of remembrance was the cup that Mashiach wanted to pass from Him.


Two years (2000) later the cup bearer remembered Yoseph. The cup of remembrance again.


Eliyahu and Enoch were taken – in time. This means that they are the witnesses.


Bread = The coming down upon us bread. During the time we are in the protective abode, HaShem will supply the bread, as taken from the story of Rehab.


The root of Jesse implies that the tree is cut down. The tree that was cut down is Aaron’s rod that budded. It also was the dead tree that became an execution stake.


Mashiach is revealed in the breaking of bread.


* * *


We can see more remez in the two Miriams (Mary):


Miriam, Aaron and Moses’ sister, was a prophetess in whose merit the rock gave water for the forty years in the wilderness, This portable “well” gave living water until Miriam died:


Midrash Rabbah - The Shir HaShirim (Song of Songs) IV:14 THAT ARE TWINS OF A GAZELLE. R. Yehoshua (Joshua) of Siknin said in the name of R. Levi: Just as, when one of two twins leaves the breast, the breast runs dry, so it is written, And I cut off the three shepherds[38] in one month (Zech. XI, 8). Now was it not only in the same year [but not the same month] that they all died? The truth is that the doom of all three was pronounced in the same month[39] and so it is written, The princes of the peoples are gathered in (PS. XLVII, 10).[40] R. Jose said: Three good patrons arose for Israel, namely, Moses, Aaron, and Miriam; and for the sake of them three precious gifts were bestowed on Israel-the well, the manna, the clouds of glory[41]: the manna for the sake of Moses, the well for the sake of Miriam, and the clouds of glory for the sake of Aaron. When Miriam died the well ran dry, and they said, This is no place of seed, or of figs (Num. XX, 5), and it was restored for the sake of Moses and Aaron. When Aaron died, the clouds of glory departed, as it says, And when all the congregation saw that Aaron was dead (Num. XX, 29): read not wayyiru (and they saw), but wayyiyru (and they feared).[42] Then both were restored for the sake of Moses. When Moses died all three departed and were never restored, and the hornet did not cross the Jordan with them,[43] and Israel had no tranquility from that day.


In the Nazarean Codicil, we are introduced to another Miriam who merited bearing The Living water:


Matityahu (Matthew) 1:18 This is how the birth of Yeshua Mashiach came about: His mother Mary was pledged to be married to Yoseph, but before they came together, she was found to be with child through the Holy Spirit.


Yochanan (John) 4:7-15 When a Samaritan woman came to draw water, Yeshua said to her, “Will you give me a drink?” (His disciples had gone into the town to buy food.) The Samaritan woman said to him, “You are a Jew and I am a Samaritan woman. How can you ask me for a drink?” (For Jews do not associate with Samaritans.) Yeshua answered her, “If you knew the gift of God and who it is that asks you for a drink, you would have asked him and he would have given you living water.” “Sir,” the woman said, “you have nothing to draw with and the well is deep. Where can you get this living water? Are you greater than our father Jacob, who gave us the well and drank from it himself, as did also his sons and his flocks and herds?” Yeshua answered, “Everyone who drinks this water will be thirsty again, But whoever drinks the water I give him will never thirst. Indeed, the water I give him will become in him a spring of water welling up to eternal life.” The woman said to him, “Sir, give me this water so that I won’t get thirsty and have to keep coming here to draw water.”


XIX. Yoseph




The story of Yoseph, in Bereshit (Genesis), is the story of Mashiach ben Yoseph and the story of Mashiach ben David. The time before Yoseph was thrown into the pit by his brothers, is the time of Mashiach on earth. The time between the pit and the Potiphar’s prison, is the description of Mashiach in the grave. The story of Yoseph as second to Pharaoh, is the time of Yeshua as Mashiach ben David. Thus we can see that this story is prophetic. The story spends almost no time on Yoseph before the pit, Mashiach ben Yoseph. The story of Yoseph spends most of its time focusing on Yoseph after the pit, Mashiach ben David. So, in the story of Yoseph we have the following “remez” characters:


Yaakov = HaShem from man’s perspective

Israel =

Yoseph = Mashiach

Judah =

Er =

Onan =

Shelah =

Chezib =

Tamar =


Yoseph’s ten brothers = Jews

Brother’s = The lost sheep of Israel

Egyptians = Gentiles

Potiphar’s wife = The woman who plays the harlot – HaShem’s people.

Captain of the guards =

Ishmaelites =

Midianites =

20 silver coins =

Rent clothing =

Sackcloth =

Kid goat =

Blood =

Potiphar =

Pharaoh =

Pit = the grave

Robe = Covering which is associated with red. This covering was first used for Adam and Eve when HaShem gave them a covering of skins.

Mitzrayim (Egypt) = The World




‘Your brothers are pasturing in Shechem, are they not?’ This is a remez to the time when the Jewish people are in exile. ‘Your brothers’ refers to the Jewish people. ‘Pasturing’ refers to the time of exile, when the temple (Mashiach) is destroyed.


His father gives him a covering (robe of many colors) which will later be dipped in blood:


Bereshit (Genesis) 37:3 Now Israel loved Yoseph more than any of his other sons, because he had been born to him in his old age; and he made a richly ornamented robe for him.


The coat of many colors seems to be the robe that a king gives to His progeny:


II Sh’muel (Samuel) 13:18 And [she had] a garment of divers colours upon her: for with such robes were the king’s daughters [that were] virgins appareled. Then his servant brought her out, and bolted the door after her.


So, we have Yoseph (Mashiach) wearing the coat from The King (HaShem), which would make Yoseph (Mashiach Yeshua) the King’s son and heir apparent.


The brothers (Jews) were upset because their father (HaShem) loved Yoseph (Mashiach Yeshua) more that any of the other brothers.


There are two pits in Yoseph’s life. Yoseph (Mashiach) is thrown into the first pit (grave) by his brothers (Jews). The first pit (grave) is in:


Bereshit (Genesis) 37:20 Come now therefore, and let us slay him, and cast him into some pit, and we will say, Some evil beast hath devoured him: and we shall see what will become of his dreams.


The word “pit” is defined by Strong’s as:


953 bowr, bore; from 952 (in the sense of 877); a pit hole (espec. one used as a cistern or prison):-cistern, dungeon, fountain, pit, well.


Now, there is a second “pit” (grave) that uses the same Hebrew word. Yoseph (Mashiach) is thrown into this second pit (grave) by Potiphar (Gentiles):


Bereshit (Genesis) 40:15 For I was forcibly carried off from the land of the Hebrews, and even here I have done nothing to deserve being put in a dungeon.”


Yoseph’s covering of many colors was dipped in the blood of a kid goat (I am thinking Yom HaKippurim), a substitute for Yoseph, and presented to his father:


Bereshit (Genesis) 37:31-34 Then they got Yoseph’s robe, slaughtered a goat and dipped the robe in the blood. They took the ornamented robe back to their father and said, “We found this. Examine it to see whether it is your son’s robe.” He recognized it and said, “It is my son’s robe! Some ferocious animal has devoured him. Yoseph has surely been torn to pieces.” Then Jacob tore his clothes, put on sackcloth and mourned for his son many days.


Bereshit (Genesis) 37:31 And they took Yoseph’s coat, and killed a kid of the goats, and dipped the coat in the blood;


8163 sa`iyr, saw-eer’; or sa`ir, saw-eer’; from 8175; shaggy; as noun, a he-goat; by anal. a faun:-devil, goat, hairy, kid, rough, satyr.


---------------- Dictionary Trace ----------------

8175 sa`ar, saw-ar’; a prim. root; to storm; by impl. to shiver, i.e. fear:- be (horribly) afraid, fear, hurl as a storm, be tempestuous, come like (take away as with) a whirlwind.


Bereshit (Genesis) 38:17 And he said, I will send [thee] a kid from the flock. And she said, Wilt thou give [me] a pledge, till thou send [it]?


1423 gediy, ghed-ee’; from the same as 1415; a young goat (from browsing):- kid.


5795 `ez, aze; from 5810; a she-goat (as strong), but masc. in plur. (which also is used ellipt. for goats’ hair):-(she) goat, kid.


-------------- Dictionary Trace -----------------

1415 gadah, gaw-daw’; from an unused root (mean. to cut off); a border of a river (as cut into by the stream):-bank. Gaddah. See 2693.


5810 `azaz, aw-zaz’; a prim. root; to be stout (lit. or fig.):-harden, impudent, prevail, strengthen (self), be strong.


So, this “kid” is not a “Ghedi” he is a satyr.


After being thrown in the pit (grave), Yoseph (Mashiach) was transported to his next life in spices much the same way that the two Miriam’s brought spices to embalm Mashiach.


Bereshit (Genesis) 37:24-28 And they took him and threw him into the cistern. Now the cistern was empty; there was no water in it. As they sat down to eat their meal, they looked up and saw a caravan of Ishmaelites coming from Gilead. Their camels were loaded with spices, balm and myrrh, and they were on their way to take them down to Egypt. Judah said to his brothers, “What will we gain if we kill our brother and cover up his blood? Come, let’s sell him to the Ishmaelites and not lay our hands on him; after all, he is our brother, our own flesh and blood.” His brothers agreed. So when the Midianite merchants came by, his brothers pulled Yoseph up out of the cistern and sold him for twenty shekels of silver to the Ishmaelites, who took him to Egypt.


Yoseph (Mashiach) was falsely convicted by the woman who played the harlot (HaShem’s people), Pother’s wife, who provided false testimony:


Bereshit (Genesis) 39:17-19 Then she told him this story: “That Hebrew slave you brought us came to me to make sport of me. But as soon as I screamed for help, he left his cloak beside me and ran out of the house.” When his master heard the story his wife told him, saying, “This is how your slave treated me,” he burned with anger.





Yoseph’s Story

The Symbols

The Meaning

Mashiach’s Story

Bereshit (Genesis) 37:2 This is the account of Jacob. Yoseph, a young man of seventeen, was tending the flocks with his brothers, the sons of Bilhah and the sons of Zilpah, his father’s wives, and he brought their father a bad report about them.

Jacob = Israel

Yoseph = “Let Him add” – A symbol of Mashiach

Flocks: sheep = Jews, goats = Gentiles

Brothers = Jews.

Bilhah = Timid

Zilpah = To trickle, as myrrh


17 = 7+10. Israel lived in Egypt (the world) for 17 years. The seventh prime number. The perfection of spiritual order.


Father = HaShem

This is the account of the House of Jacob. Yeshua, a young man “the perfection of spiritual order”, was tending His people with his Jewish brothers, the sons of the “timid one” and the sons of “the one who trickles”, HaShem’s wives, and He brought HaShem a bad report about them.

Luqas (Luke) 20:9-16 He went on to tell the people this parable: “A man planted a vineyard, rented it to some farmers and went away for a long time. At harvest time he sent a servant to the tenants so they would give him some of the fruit of the vineyard. But the tenants beat him and sent him away empty-handed. He sent another servant, but that one also they beat and treated shamefully and sent away empty-handed. He sent still a third, and they wounded him and threw him out. “Then the owner of the vineyard said, ‘What shall I do? I will send my son, whom I love; perhaps they will respect him.’ “But when the tenants saw him, they talked the matter over. ‘This is the heir,’ they said. ‘Let’s kill him, and the inheritance will be ours.’ So they threw him out of the vineyard and killed him. “What then will the owner of the vineyard do to them? He will come and kill those tenants and give the vineyard to others.” When the people heard this, they said, “May this never be!”

Bereshit (Genesis) 37:3 Now Israel loved Yoseph more than any of his other sons, because he had been born to him in his old age; and he made a richly ornamented robe for him.

Israel = “He will rule as God” = HaShem.


Robe = cover


Richly Ornamented = The garment for the progeny of a king (2 Sh’muel (Samuel) 13:18)

Now HaShem loved Mashiach more than any of His other sons, because he had been born to Him in His old age, and HaShem made Yeshua a covering of many colors.

Marqos (Mark) 9:7 Then a cloud appeared and enveloped them, and a voice came from the cloud: “This is my Son, whom I love. Listen to him!”

Bereshit (Genesis) 37:4 When his brothers saw that their father loved him more than any of them, they hated him and could not speak a kind word to him.

Speak = arrange


Kind = Shalom = Peace.

When the Jews saw that HaShem loved Yeshua more than any of them, they hated Yeshua and could not arrange peace with Yeshua.

Yochanan (John) 15:18 “If the world hates you, keep in mind that it hated me first.

Bereshit (Genesis) 37:5 Yoseph dreamed a dream, and when he told it to his brothers, they hated him all the more.

Dreamed = to bind firmly.


Told = to stand boldly out

Yeshua was bound firmly by a dream, and when He told it to the Jews, they hated Him all the more.


Bereshit (Genesis) 37:6 He said to them, “Listen to this dream I had:

Hear = Shema

Hear this dream which is firmly bound.


Bereshit (Genesis) 37:7 We were binding sheaves of grain out in the field when suddenly my sheaf rose and stood upright, while your sheaves gathered around mine and bowed down to it.”

Sheaves = that which is bound.


Field = to spread out.

We were binding that which is bound in the spread out place, when behold that which I bound rose and stationed itself, and behold that which you bound, spun around and prostrated to that which I bound.

Matityahu (Matthew) 27:2 They bound him, led him away and handed him over to Pilate, the governor.


Philippians 2:10 That at the name of Yeshua every knee should bow, in heaven and on earth and under the earth,

Bereshit (Genesis) 37:8 His brothers said to him, “Do you intend to reign over us? Will you actually rule us?” And they hated him all the more because of his dream and what he had said.

Over = The Highest

The Jews said to Yeshua, “Do intend to reign in the highest? Shalt thou have dominion over us?” And they hated Yeshua all the more because of His dream and His Word.

Yochanan (John) 15:25 But this is to fulfill what is written in their Law: ‘They hated me without reason.’

Bereshit (Genesis) 37:9 Then he had another dream, and he told it to his brothers. “Listen,” he said, “I had another dream, and this time the sun and moon and eleven stars were bowing down to me.”

11 = 10+1 or 12-1

 = imperfection.


Stars = That which is heaped up.

The Yeshua bound firmly another dream, and recorded it for the Jews. Behold I have bound firmly another dream, and this time the sun and moon and the imperfect heaps were prostrating before me.”

Romans 14:11 It is written: “‘As surely as I live,’ says the Lord, ‘every knee will bow before me; every tongue will confess to God.’”

Bereshit (Genesis) 37:10 When he told his father as well as his brothers, his father rebuked him and said, “What is this dream you had? Will your mother and I and your brothers actually come and bow down to the ground before you?”

Mother = That which joins or bonds.

And Yeshua recorded for HaShem and the Jews, HaShem chided Yeshua and said, “What is this dream that thou hast bound? Will your bond of the family, HaShem and the Jews actually prostrate before You?”

Romans 14:11 It is written: “‘As surely as I live,’ says the Lord, ‘every knee will bow before me; every tongue will confess to God.’”

Rachel, the mother of Yoseph, is the very essence of hiddenness and concealment. When her sister Leah is substituted for her in marriage to Yaakov, why does Rachel not cry out and protest that an injustice is being done? Because to do so would have humiliated her sister. Rachel knows how to conceal things, including her bitter disappointment.


Rachel’s son Yoseph is also a master of concealment. His essential qualities of holiness are concealed from his brothers, who do not recognize his greatness because he effectively hides them. And when the brothers come down to Egypt 22 years later, they again fail to recognize him, for he is now concealed behind his garments. The Talmud (Sotah 10) underscores the hidden qualities of Yoseph when it states that - in the case of Potiphar’s wife - Yoseph sanctified the name of HaShem in private, in a hidden way.





Rav Yissachar Yaakovson, in “Bina BaMikra,” cites M. D. Kassuto, who points out the very similar language used in two instances in the Parsha of Yoseph. The first is when Yoseph’s brothers bring the “ksonet pasim,” the “many-colored coat,” the symbol of their rage and frustration, dipped in goat’s blood, to their father. They say to him, in perhaps the cruelest expression in all of the Bible, “zot matzanu; haker na, ha’ketonet binecha hi im lo?”,”We have found this; identify it, please - is it the coat of your son or not?” And Yaakov is forced to respond, in a grief beyond words, “It is the coat of my son; Yoseph is without doubt torn by a wild beast” (Bereshit 37:32-33).


The second is when Tamar, accused of adultery, says at her trial, (Bereshit 38:25-26) “Haker na, lemi ha’chosemet veha’ptilim ve’ha’mateh ha’aleh?”, “Identify these, please, whose are they - this signet, this cord and this staff?” (indicating that it is the owner of those items by whom she is pregnant).


Kassuto uses this “Identify - Identify” parallelism as follows: Yehudah was most responsible for the cruel deception upon his father, for it was his suggestion that Yoseph be sold into slavery. He was punished “midah k’neged midah,” “measure for measure,” when Tamar, having been frustrated in her attempts to become a “mother in Israel,” tricked her father-in-law into a quasi-”Yibbum,” “levirate marriage.” And, at her trial, she sent to Yehudah the objects which accused him - silently, teaching for all generations that it is preferable for a person to enter a fiery furnace, for that was to be her punishment, than to embarrass someone else in public. Yehudah, confronted with this evidence, rises to the challenge, and says “Tzadkah mimeni!” “She is more righteous than I!”


Perhaps it was this terrible lesson in responsibility which caused Yehudah to step forward, years later, and take responsibility for Benyamin, on pain of sinning against his father in this world and the next.


On Tisha B’Av and on Yom Kippur in the piyut of “Eleh Ezkera,” we read of the cruel executions of the Ten Martyrs, during the reign of the emperor Hadrian, although we know that the executions were not in fact performed simultaneously. The paytan, based on the Midrash, relates the deaths of these great men of Israel to the crime of the brothers of Yoseph, who sold him into slavery for a pair of shoes. The question arises, “Is there any evidence of this in the Chumash itself?”


Here we say that the parallelism suggests that the courageous “viduy,” confession, “Tzadkah mimeni” was in fact a “kaparah,” an atonement, for the sin of “mechirat Yoseph,” the sale of Yoseph. When we evaluate the gematria of the pasuk representing the sin, from “zot matzanu” thru “im lo,” we find that the total is 1906. The gematria of Tamar’s statement which triggered the kapparah, from “haker na” thru “ha’aleh” is 1896. The discrepancy between the sin and the kapporah is ten.


It was for these “ten“ that the People of Israel paid, and to some extent we continue to pay, for our persistent and destructive inability to come together as one nation, for our inablility to put together a quorum of ten, for our “sinat chinam,” with the lives of the Ten Martyrs, and the continuing and tragic “parade” of martyrs of the State of Israel.


Rabbi Pinchas Frankel


* * *


“Vayigash Eilav Yehudah” (Perek Mem Daled Pasuk Yud Ches). At the end of Parshat Miketz, an expensive goblet is found in Binyamin’s sack and Yoseph orders him held as collateral. Incredibly angered, Yehudah approaches Yoseph to speak on behalf of the brothers. Reviewing Yehudah’s dialogue, the Baal Shem Tov Hakadosh finds a number of words that seem unnecessary.


When Yehudah first begins to speak he says “Bi Adoni,” please my Master. Why use the word please if he was so angry, the word “Bi” seems unnecessary. Later on he says “Yidaber Nah Avdecha”, please let your servant speak. Again the word “Nah,” meaning please, seems unnecessary. He continues “Al Yichar Apcha,” do not get angry. The word “Al” is unnecessary. The last thing the Baal Shem Tov finds unnecessary is the letter “Chof” before the word “Kamocha.”


The Baal Shem Tov points out that the letters that make up these four words -- Bait, Yud, (Bi), Nun, Alef (Nah), Alef, Lamed (Al), and Chof are the Roshei Teivot (lit. head of words, an acronym) for these words: “Bameh Yizaceh Nar Et Archo, Lishmor Kidvarecha” (Tehilim, Kof Yud Tes, Pasuk Tet). These words are a Segulah (reward) for holding back your anger. (See the Baal Shem Tov on the Torah for various explanations.)


One can say that Yehuda used these words to help himself control his anger. But we can also see a message here for Yoseph. We know that the word “Nar” is generally a remez to Yoseph. Also as Yehudah continues to speak he tells Yoseph everything that happened, even things that Yoseph already knew. “Bameh Yizaceh Nar Es Archo,” How can a “Nar” keep himself on the path of righteousness, “lishmor Kidvarecha” by keeping his word. Yoseph had asked them to bring down Binyamin and when they hesitated, he gave them his word that everything would be okay. By adding these words, Yehudah was asking Yoseph to keep his promise.


Reb Mordechaio Rosen


* * *


From His Eminence Hakham Dr. Yoseph ben Haggai:




This week our Seder starts with the words: “Vayomer Par’oh el-avadav hanimtza kazeh ish asher ruach Elokim bo. - Pharoah said to his servants, “Could we find another like him - a man in whom is the spirit of G-d?” Please do note that Pharaoh, the leader of the only world super-power of that time, says of Yoseph: “asher ruach Elokim bo – upon whom is the spirit of G-d.” The Targum paraphrases and says: “in whom is the spirit of prophecy from the L-rd.” And, the Book of Yasher puts it: “in whose heart there is wisdom and knowledge“ [Note: “understanding” is not mentioned but is alluded to. We could well state this in its Hebraic context as: “in whose heart/mind there is Chakmah (wisdom), Binah (understanding), and Da’at (knowledge),” or simply: “in whose heart/mind there is ChaBaD.”]


In 1 Luqas (Luke) 2:40 we read:


“And, the child, went on growing, and waxing strong (in Spirit), becoming filled with wisdom; and, the knowledge of G-d, was upon him.” (Peshitta version)


Here Hakham Dr. Luqas was alluding in his Gemara treatise to the text of Beresheet 41:38. Compare also with Yeshayahu 11:2 of our Haftarah for this Shabbat. Interesting that in the Stone’s Tanakh edition vv.1-10 of Yeshayahu is labeled “The Davidic Mashiach,” and yet the more one looks at these ten first verses of our Haftarah the more one can see that this has nothing to do with the Mashiach ben David but with a descendant of the Royal House of David who would be the Mashiach ben Yoseph. Apparently someone has missed the boat rather badly on that one!


In the Midrash to Song of Songs 6:9 it is explained that even as “queens and concubines praise her (i.e. Israel)” this is like when Pharaoh said of Yoseph: “Can we find such a one as this, in whom is the spirit of G-d … there is none so discrete and wise as you” (Genesis 41:38,39). That is why of Israel it is said in Deuteronomy 4:6 – “Surely this great nation is a wise and understanding people.” The Midrash seems to imply that at present Israel = Mashiach ben Yoseph. But what is interesting is the kind of people that praises Israel – “Queens” (persons worthy of royalty) and “Concubines” (persons who are willing to be part of Israel for no gain, as a concubine is willing to share with a man even though she will not inherit as a wife). How great are the words of our Sages! So much depth, so much wisdom!


Perhaps this becomes more clear if we say that the only man who ruled over the Gentiles as the ruler of a superpower who was of Israel was Yoseph! The only man to whom the crown of Israel to rule over the Jews was promised was David. That is why the Jew has little understanding about Mashiach ben Yoseph, all we have looked forward if for Mashiach ben David and the inception of his Messianic Era, may it come soon! When we look at this in context we can surely now understand the words of Hakham Shaul in his Responsa to the Roman Proselytes


“For I wish not, ye should be ignorant, brethren, of this sacred secret (of the Torah), lest within yourselves you become presumptuous, that, a small blindness has fallen upon Israel, until, the full measure of the Gentiles, be gathered in; and then, will all Israel be delivered. As it is written (Isaiah 59:20): “A redeemer will come to Zion, and to those of Jacob who repent from wilful sin.” … Now, touching the Masorah, they are hostile for your sake; but in the election, they are beloved for the Patriarchs’ sake. For G-d does not change in His free gift and in His calling.” (Romans 11:26-30).


I have always been intrigued as to what Hakham Shaul exactly meant when he wrote: “Now, touching the Masorah, they are hostile for your sake.” But as we see in the story of Yoseph the brothers of Yoseph (Israel) were hostile to Yoseph for Yoseph’s sake. If the brothers of Yoseph had not sold him to the caravan traders he would not have ended in Egypt and become the ruler of the Gentiles. Thus Mashiach ben Yoseph has nothing to do with Israel, except that it proceeds from Israel, and at some point in time becomes a deliverer to Israel, but Yoseph never ruled over his brethren, his rule has to do with the Gentiles! And Yoseph’s wisdom has nothing to do with Israel but with and for the Goyim! Another interesting thing is that sure Israel is blind in a small part, but that does not compare to the presumptuousness that the Gentiles have and still hold, particular those who say that they are the followers of the Mashiach and teach that the Torah is done away and that they are the only Israel. I think if I am given the choice of being a little blind or of being presumptuous before G-d, I would rather prefer the former. The Gentiles should well take heed to the words of Pharaoh concerning Mashiach ben Yoseph – “And by your command the whole nation (all of the Gentiles) will be sustained!” (Beresheet 41:40)


And the Gentiles, called Yoseph “Avrekh” (Beresheet 41:43). Our Rabbis in Beresheet Rabba 90,3 that this particular word is composed of two words which can be translated as “a father-figure.” No wonder the Gentiles in their ignorance see Mashiach as part of G-d rather than as Israel’s gift to the Gentiles! Notice that the Torah does not call Yoseph that but the Gentiles did. The Targum translates “Father of the King” and in Egypt Pharaoh was seen as an incarnation of the sun god. In other words, the Egyptians (and all the Gentiles) see in Mashiach ben Yoseph something greater than any of their gods.


Pharaoh, on the other hand called Yoseph’s name “Tzafenat-pa’neach – one who reveals secrets” (Ber. 41:45), or “the explainer of hidden things.” And this is what Hakham Shaul above was alluding to when he wrote: “For I wish not, ye should be ignorant, brethren, of this sacred secret (mystery)” [Romans 11:26]. Mashiach ben Yoseph then is the revealer of the secret things in the Torah, the explainer of the hidden things in the Torah. And when the so-called “Gospels“ are read from a rabbinical perspective this is what they exactly distil – the secret things hidden in the Torah! But in order to understand Mashiach ben Yoseph’s words one needs to be a joyful and meticulous doer of the Torah as well as an experienced and advanced learner of the Torah. Without these two concomitant ingredients there is no way possible to understand the so-called “Gospels“ – the Masorah of Mashiach ben Yoseph. A mystery for a Jew is the “So’od“ (secret) of the Torah. For the pagans well we all know what they mean by “mysteries.” The Secrets of the Torah were codified and written down finally in Spain before the inquisition, where the holy Zohar (radiance of the Torah) came to light.


The Story with Mr. Potiphar


The Torah informs us in Beresheet 41:45 – “vayiten-lo et-Asenat bat Poti-fera kohen On le’ishah - and he (Pharaoh) gave him Asenat daughter of Poti-fera, Priest of On, for a wife.” The Midrash in Beresheet Rabba 86,3 identifies this person as being the same as Mr. Potiphar of chapter 39 of Beresheet. The word Poti-fera constitutes the first letters of the phrase “fattening oxen and calves in order that they become offered as sacrifices in pagan rites.” Apparently Mr. Potiphar became castrated (sexually impotent) as a penalty for wanting to use Yoseph for homosexual purposes. In shame he resigned as a minister to Pharaoh and became a Pagan Priest serving the god “On.”


However in Pirqe d’Rabbi Eliezer it is said that Asenat was the daughter of Dinah who had been raped by Shechem the son of Chamor. Regarding this, the wise Sephardi Sage, Hakham Bachya ben Asher of blessed memory comments:


“Ya’aqov had expelled her from his home and had arranged for her to live amongst some bushes. This is why she was called “Asenat” from the word “Asenah” meaning “bush.” When arranging for her to live near that bush Ya’aqov attached a note around her neck on which it was written “anyone who attaches himself to you thereby will become part of Ya’aqov’s family.” When Yoseph saw this note he went and hid it. This is why when his father asked him who the lads were whom he had brought with him to be blessed (Gen. 48:9), he said: “they are my sons Whom HaShem gave me in this place.” He showed his father the note and what had been written thereon.


She was described as daughter of Potiphar because she had been raised in Potiphar’s house. She was so named in accordance with Sanhedrin 19 that states that anyone who raises an orphan in his home is deemed to have given birth to that person.”


Truly then Mashiach be Yoseph has come to re-gather into Israel the “lost sheep of Israel” – those Jewish souls that have mingled up with the Goyim or who have been the product of the Goyim raping our women or converting our people to their religions at the edge of the sword. All of these are considered as Asenat the product of a raped Jewess by the hand of Gentiles. It is these who are the “lost sheep of Israel,” and in G-d’s accounting nothing is lost, as He loving brings back that which is His, most blessed be He!


Go top Yoseph!


In Beresheet 41:55 we read: “Vatir’av kol eretz Mitzrayim vayitz’ak ha’am el-Par’oh lalachem vayomer Par’oh lekhol-Mitzrim lekhu el-Yoseph asher-yomar lakhem ta’asu. When all the land of Mitzrayim hungered, the people cried out to Pharoah for bread. So Pharoah said to all of Mitzrayim, ‘Go to Yoseph. Whatever he tells you, you should do.’” And this is the same counsel that G-d has for the Gentiles – ‘Go to Mashiach ben Yoseph. Whatever he tells you, you should do.’ In Midrash Tanchuma and in Miketz 7, it relates what happened. When Pharaoh sent his petitioners to Yoseph and they pleaded with him for bread, Yoseph told them to come back after they had circumcised themselves. Thereupon the people returned to Pharaoh and cried in front of him telling him that Yoseph had refused to supply them with bread until they had circumcised themselves. Pharaoh said to them: “Why were you foolish enough not to have stored food for yourselves during the last seven years?” Thereupon the people told him that everything they had stored had rotted away. Pharaoh asked them if not some of yesterday’s bread was left over? They told Pharaoh that even bread they had put in their bread baskets on the previous day had turned bad. Thereupon Pharaoh told them to go back to Yoseph and to carry out all of his instructions. This is the meaning of the verse (Proverbs 11:26): “he who withholds grain they will curse (i.e. Pharaoh), whereas he who sells it (i.e. Yoseph) will enjoy a blessing.” This is what Ya’aqov had in mind when he said to his son Yoseph (Genesis 49:26) “the blessings of your father surpassed the blessings of my parents.” Moshe alluded to this in Deut. 33:15 – “may this blessing come to rest on the head of Yoseph, etc.,” that is, that the reason Yoseph enjoys these additional blessings is that he was the supplier of bread to humanity.


It is then that we can see why it was necessary for Mashiach ben Yoseph to be born in Bet Lechem – The house of bread.” And the Midrash is intimating here that the bread Mashiach ben Yoseph is only for those Gentiles that are willing to undertake circumcision after the manner of Mosheh and be obedient to his commands as found in the Written and Oral Torah of Israel, as it is said in the Gemara of 2 Luqas 15:21 - “For the rest you (Gentiles) have Mosheh who from ancient generations has in every city them that proclaim him, being read in the synagogues every Sabbath.”


Clearly, as can be seen, to understand who is Mashiach ben Yoseph and what he is supposed to do, and what is the nature of his ministry one needs to read the story of Yoseph in the Written and Oral Torah to begin to understand something of the import and significance of this Mashiach. I know that some modern Hakhamim teach that Mashiach ben Yoseph will fight the war of Gog and Magog nevertheless, this is not correct and what is more it is contrary to the teachings of the Oral Torah which in part we have discussed above. Mashiach ben Yoseph is not a warrior Mashiach but a dispenser of bread (i.e. Torah) to the Gentiles, provided they are will to submit to a Bet Din and be circumcised after the manner of Mosheh.


Finally we read in our section of the Midrash of Matityahu for this Shabbat (11:20-24) about three cities of Galilee notorious for the assimilated Jews in them. Mashiach ben Yoseph appealed to these to repent and turn back to Torah, they did not and thus the warning that if they fail to repent punishment from the hand of heaven would be meted out. No Torah, no bread! It is a simple as that. And he who ceases to diligently buy and study Torah from Mashiach ben Yoseph, and put it into practice, a famine will come and even the bread that they had saved (their theologies) will all become stale and not fit to eat. Let us obey the Creator whilst it is yet called “today” and return to His ways!




This Shabbat is the first of the month of Tevet, and in Eretz Yisrael on Friday 6th of Tevet the winter season starts. And just as in the physical realm we see a darkening of the wonderful light of Chanukah, an obscuring of that which is clear and evident that leads to a hibernation of our search for the Divine light, and with it a diminution of our spiritual clarity. On the other hand the symbol for this month is the goat as seen in the symbol for Capricorn. The Hebrew word for goat is “Ghedi“ and its numerical value is 17 which is also the number for the word “Tov” meaning: good/beneficial. If we change the order of the letters for the Hebrew Ghedi = Goat, then we have “Gid” which means the male member. This means that this month is a most beneficial month to repair and rectify any problem with our relationship with G-d, symbolized by the covenant of circumcision which sealed upon our flesh and our hearts.


This also means that after the Primordial light has illumined our hearts during Chanukah then the Ruach HaQodesh (G-d’s Spirit of Holiness) starts to work with us on our response to that illumination by reminding us of our covenantal obligations with G-d, most blessed be He! This is why the middle letter of the Hebrew word “Gid” is the “Yod” which represents G-d’s wisdom in our brain the seed that sprouts in good deeds of loving kindness as an answer to the covenantal relationship with the Creator. If we were to take this middle letter “Yod” from the Hebrew word “Gid” then it remains the letters “Gimel” and “Dalet” which are the initials for “Gomel Dalim” which means “giving to the poor.”


That is, in this month we are given the opportunity afresh to renew our relationship with HaShem, to do acts of Tikkun (reparation) and to rectify all those deeds and ideas in our lives and minds that have separated us from HaShem, and from the covenant with Him. Far from being a time to slumber, it is a most propitious opportunity for renewal and regeneration. This is an excellent month to rid ourselves of the problem of spiritual sleep in a material world. This is the month to concentrate on what really matters to us and avoid the spiritual paralysis of materialism, of a better home, a better car, a better whatever, when all that HaShem wants is a better heart, and a better walk with Him and our fellows.


Similarly, this week we read in our Seder for this Shabbat about the reconciliation of Yoseph with his brethren. The breach in the covenant of the Patriarchs upon Ya’acov’s is rectified, and from separation emerges synthesis and unity amongst all of B’ne Yisrael (the children of Israel). This is why we read about this wonderful episode of our history at this time of the year.


In order to understand our Seder for this Shabbat we need to return to a text covered two Sabbaths ago, that is Beresheet (Genesis) 43:8-9 –


“Then Judah said to Israel his father, ‘Send the lad with me, and we will arise and go, that we may live and not die, both we and you and also our little ones. I myself will be a guarantor for him; from my hand you will require him. If I do not bring him back to you and set him before you, then let me bear the blame forever.’”


Please note that it is not until Yehudah became the guarantor for Binyamin that Ya’aqov allowed the brothers to take his son Binyamin down to Egypt. So, when the cup of Yoseph is found in Binyamin’s sack, Yehudah, the guarantor, took up the issue with Yoseph. We can contrast then Yehudah’s discharge of his responsibility towards his brethren with that of Cain, as it is written:


Beresheet (Genesis) 4:9 Then HaShem said to Cain, ‘Where is Abel your brother?’ He (Cain) said, ‘I do not know. Am I my brother’s keeper (guarantor)?’


Whilst the English translation seems to reflect a very humble Yehudah the truth is that in the Hebrew it is the very opposite. For example, Midrash Rabba (93) comments on Beresheet 44:18


“THEN YEHUDAH CAME NEAR TO HIM … LET YOUR SERVANT SPEAK A WORD IN MY HaShem’s EARS” – May my words penetrate into your ears.”


And Rashi in the Peshat (literal level of interpretation) comments:


“AND LET NOT YOUR WRATH GLOW” – From these words you may infer that he (Yehudah) spoke to him (Yoseph) in harsh terms. “FOR YOU ARE EVEN AS PHARAOH” – In my sight you are as important as the king. This is the literal meaning, but a Midrashic explanation is: You will ultimately be stricken with leprosy for detaining Benjamin even as your ancestor Pharaoh was stricken because he detained my ancestress Sarah one night.”


In this vein, the Babylonian Talmud states concerning Mashiach ben Yoseph:


Sanhedrin 98b “Some say (about the Mashiach): “Menachem (Hebrew for Comforter) son of Hezekiah is his name …” And the Rabbis say: “The Leprous of the House of Study is his name, as it is said, Verily, he has borne our diseases, and our pains – he carried them, and we thought him stricken, smitten of G-d, and afflicted (Isaiah 53:4).” … Rav said: “If he is of those who live today, then he is like our Holy Master, Rabbi Yehudah the Prince, and if he is of those who have died, then he is like Daniel the beloved man.”


Our Sages report that 1,500 years later the Ba’al Shem Tov had an encounter with him and discovered him amongst the unknown and hidden saints. Thus the record sates:


“[One Friday afternoon a young Talmudic scholar was riding with the Ba’al Shem Tov in a cart across the open field, when all of a sudden he espied a village in the distance, and he was filled with joy, for he thought that they would surely spend the Sabbath there, and not out in the open. And in that very moment they entered the village, and, behold the horse went of its own through the village and did not stop at any house. The youth became saddened by this, for it seemed that they would, after all, not spend the Sabbath in the village. But when the horse reached the end of the village, it stopped in front of a ruin. The youth thought that they would spend the Sabbath in that ruin and became filled with joy, for it was better than being in the field. And the Ba’al Shem Tov entered the ruin, and the youth went after him. And, behold, in the ruined house lived an old man, a leper; from head to foot there was no hale spot in his body, he was so full of wounds and boils. And his wife and children walked about in torn and tattered garments. And when the Ba’al Shem Tov opened the door, the old man became filled with joy, and ran up to the Ba’al Shem Tov, and said to him, “Peace be unto you my Master and Teacher!” And he who saw not their joy has never seen joy in his life. And they went into a separate room, and talked about half an hour. And then they took permission from each other in fierce love, like the love of David and Jonathan. And then the Ba’al Shem Tov took his seat in the cart, and the horse trotted along on its own …


On the way back home the youth asked the Ba’al Shem Tov: “What was the meaning of the joy which the encounter with the old lepper caused to both of you?” … And the Ba’al Shem Tov said to him: “… As for what happened between me and the old man in the village, as it is known, there is a Mashiach in every generation in this World, in reality, clothed in a body. And if the generation is worthy, he is ready to reveal himself; and if, G-d forbid, they are not worthy, he departs. And behold, the old man was ready to be our True Mashiach, and it was his desire to enjoy my company on the Sabbath. But I foresaw that he would depart at the Third Meal (which is taken at the outgoing of the Sabbath), and I did not want to endure any pain on the Sabbath (and therefore I took my leave from him before the arrival of the Sabbath).” – [Kadamer, Sefer Sippurim Noraim, pp. 9a-b,10b]


The story is full of rich Kabbalistic expressions and symbolism, nevertheless it perfectly describes a more recent encounter between Yehudah and Yoseph as we read in our Seder for this Shabbat. The Holy Zohar further describes this Mashiach ben Yoseph as follows:


“The souls which are in the Garden of Eden of Below roam about on every New Moon and Sabbath, and go to that place which is called Walls of Jerusalem, where there are many officers and detachments which watch over those walls … And they go to that place, but do not enter it until they are purified. And there they prostrate themselves, and enjoy that radiance, and then return to the Garden. [And again] they go forth from there and roam about in the world, and they see the bodies of the sinful suffering their punishment … And they continue to roam and view those afflicted with sufferings and disease, and those who suffer for the Oneness of their Master, and they return and tell all of this to the Mashiach. In the hour in which they tell the Mashiach about the sufferings of Israel in exile, and about the sinful amongst them who seek not the knowledge of their Master, the Mashiach lifts up his voice and weeps over those sinful amongst them. This is what is written: He was wounded because of our transgressions; he was crushed because of our iniquities (Isaiah 53:5). Those souls then return to their places. In the Garden of Eden there is a hall, which is called the Hall of the Sons of Illness. The Mashiach enters that hall and summons all the diseases and all the pains and all the sufferings of Israel that they should come upon him, and all of them come upon him. And would he not thus bring ease to Israel and take their sufferings upon himself, no man could endure sufferings Israel has to undergo because they neglected the Torah … As long as Israel dwelt in the Holy Land, the rituals and the sacrifices they performed in the Temple removed all those diseases from the world (Hebrew: OLAM); now the Mashiach removes them from the children of the world (Hebrew: OLAM).” (Zohar 2:212a)


Thus Yoseph in our Seder is also seen as the deliverer of the Gentiles for he correctly interpreted the word of G-d in a dream to Pharaoh, and delivered the world from famine. This is clearly seen in Bereshit 45:4-5 where we read:


“And Yoseph said to his brothers, ‘Please come near to me.’ So they came near. Then he said: ‘I am Yoseph your brother, whom you sold into Egypt. But now, do not therefore be grieved or angry with yourselves because you sold me here; for G-d sent me before you in order to preserve life.’”


For twenty-two years the brothers of Yoseph had erected a series of arguments to justify their behaviour with Yoseph. But something changed, Yehudah said: “Now therefore please let your servant remain instead of the lad as a slave to my lord, and let the lad go up with his brothers” (Beresheet 44:3). Yoseph was not willing to reveal himself until his brothers totally accepted his authority, for he remembered how they had been angry, exclaiming, “Will you then rule over us? Or will you indeed have dominion over us?” (Ber. 37:8). When Yehudah, the leader of the brothers, accepted Yoseph’s authority and referred to himself as “your servant,” Yoseph was no longer able to restrain himself, and identified himself to them. When Yehudah utter the words “And now let your servant remain instead of the lad,” Yoseph realised that that Yehudah had fully repented, and was willing to suffer the humiliation to be a slave in perpetuity, as long as this would atone for his sin. The words “Ani Yoseph“ (I am Yoseph) were enough, the brothers understood.


Twice Yoseph says “Ani Yoseph“ (I am Yoseph). The first time in Beresheet 45:3, and the brothers became dismayed in his presence out of shame for their sin against Yoseph. The second time in Beresheet 45:5. Rashi explains that the first time Yoseph said it in a tone of exclamation, and seeing his brothers were ashamed of their sin, “He (Yoseph) called to them again in mild, sweet, and gentle language and showed them his circumcision.” Rashi further states that in truth Yoseph presented tenderly to his brethren two proofs to show them he was their borther. First, his circumcision, and second he spoke to them in Hebrew the language of the house of Ya’aqov. Yoseph showed his circumcision to his brothers to show that though he had endured much evil he had been faithful to the sacred seal of the covenant. And to his faithfulness to the seal of the covenant in his flesh he attributed his greatness and state of exaltation.


Further Yoseph commands his brethren: “Hurry and go up to your father, and say to him, Thus says your son Yoseph: G-d has made me lord of all Egypt; come down to me, do not tarry” (Beresheet 45:9). With this Yoseph was telling his brothers, “Until now you have not recognised me because I have been speaking in a foreign language using foreign expressions, but now that I speak in Hebrew and use Hebrew expressions you will be able to recognise my voice. Hurry, return to HaShem, and say to Him, thus says Mashiach Ben Yoseph, HaShem has made me Master of all the Goyim, come down to me, do not tarry.


It is to this phrase: “G-d has made me the lord of all Egypt” that Hakham Shaul refers when he states:


Romans 11:25 For I do not desire, brethren, that you should be ignorant of this secret, lest you should be wise in your own opinion, that partial blindness has happened to Israel until the fullness of the Gentiles has come in.


That is, until Mashiach ben Yoseph has fully become the lord of all Egypt (i.e. the Gentiles) Mashiach ben David can’t be dispatched nor Mashiach ben Yoseph will be revealed to his brethren. But one may ask, what is this partial blindness that has befallen Israel? The answer is quite simple the partial blindness consist in the failure to recognise that Mashiach ben Yoseph is the Mashiach for the Gentiles, and when all Israel recognises this simple fact then Mashiach ben Yoseph will be revealed as Mashiach ben Yoseph.


The great tragedy in history has been that because the Gentiles have betrayed Mashiach ben Yoseph and have not kept the commandments but reverted to idolatry, Mashiach ben Yoseph still to this very day remains a shadowy figure to most Jews. The Gentiles have boasted against the natural branches forgetting that the root of the Written and Oral Torah together with the Patriarchs supports them. How much the Gentile who comes to adhere to the rule of Mashiach ben Yoseph owes the Jewish people! A debt which requires the Gentile to observe HaShem’s commandments even if only as a token of gratitude.


Another interesting allusion here is found in the next verse where it says that Yoseph “fell upon his brother Binyamin’s neck, and wept.” Rashi tells us that the Hebrew word “Tsavarai” translated as “neck” is in the Torah in the plural form. That is, Yoseph cried over the two necks – i.e. temples that would be built in the territory of Benyamin (Song of Songs 4:4). However when Benyamin wept upon Yoseph’s neck, he wept on account of the sanctuary in Shilo which would be built in Yoseph’s territory and also become destroyed. The Holy Zohar adds that Yoseph also wept over his brethren (45:15) because he could prophetically see the time in which his brethren would be dispersed throughout the nations. However his brethren did not weep, because they were not inspired like Yoseph by the spirit of G-d’s holiness.


Hakham Dr. Yoseph ben Haggai


* * *


His Eminence Hakham Dr. Yosef ben Haggai also pointed out the following:


Genesis (Bereshit) 43:34 And he took and sent messes unto them from before him: but Benjamin’s mess was five times so much as any of theirs. And they drank, and were merry with him.


The Targum Pseudo Jonathan interprets this apsuk as:


Genesis (Bereshit) 43:34 And he sent portions from his table, and they set them forth from him before them. But Benjamin’s portion was larger than the portions of any of them; five portions: one was his own portion one portion from himself, one from his wife, and two portions from his two sons. And they drank and were drunken with him; for from the day when they were separated from him they had not drunk wine, neither he nor they, until that day.


Rashi also comments on thios pasuk:


and they drank and became intoxicated with him Since the day that they had sold him, neither they nor he had drunk wine, but on that day they drank.-[from Gen. Rabbah 92:5]


Rashi also notes that the Midrash speaks of this incident:


Midrash Rabbah - Genesis XCVIII:20 R. Isaac of Magdala interpreted: Thou art the crown of thy brethren.2 R. Levi said- He was literally a nazirite. For R. Levi said: During the whole of the twenty-two years that he did not see them he tasted no wine, and they too tasted no wine until they saw him. Thus it says, And they drank and were merry with him (Gen. XLIII, 34): with him they drank, but away from him they did not drink.


His Eminence makes note that this idea has a familiar sound. He points to:


Matityahu (Matthew) 26:29 But I say unto you, I will not drink henceforth of this fruit of the vine, until that day when I drink it new with you in my Father’s kingdom.


This suggests several ideas according to His Eminence:

  1.  As Mashiach said these words on Passover, so this incident took place on Passover.
  2. This incident with Yosef is a remez to the time when we will drink the fruit of the vine in the kingdom. Note that Yosef’s brothers are in the house of the king (Yosef), eating with the king!
  3. Since it was Passover, we expect that there were four cups of wine.
  4. Since it was Passover, we expect that this was the seder which takes place at the beginning of the day (right after sunset).
  5. Since it was Passover we expect to see them eating lamb, which indeed they were.



* * *


Bar-Ilan University’s Parashat Hashavua Study Center

Parashat Miketz 5759/1998-- Shabbat Hanukah


Yoseph and His Brothers: The Point of the Story


By Prof. Yehudah Elitzur (of blessed memory)

(Department of Bible)


In order to understand the events in this week’s reading one must first recognize that the family of the patriarchs was not a family in the modern sense of the word. It was an entire clan with hanikhim or “retainers” (cf. Gen. 14:14), ne’arim or “servants” (“nothing but what my servants have used up,” Gen. 14:24), and ahim or “kinsmen” (“And Jacob said to his kinsmen,” Gen. 31:46); it had allies, was likely to go to war and make treaties, and had servants who dug wells. In short, it was the beginnings of an entire nation.


Reuben’s sin -- “Reuben went and lay with Bilhah, his father’s concubine” (Gen. 35:22)-- should be understood in this context. It was not that he violated the laws on permissible sexual relationships, but as Jacob put it, that he was “unstable as water,” (Gen. 49:4), trying to seize something before its time, as in Ahithophel’s counsel to Absalom, “Have intercourse with your father’s concubines” (II Sam. 16:21). Yoseph’s “coat of many colors,” according to the plain sense of the text, was not simply a father’s way of pampering the child of his old age with a fine woolen garment, but was royal garb like that mentioned in the story of Amnon and Tamar: “a coat of many colors, for maiden princesses were customarily dressed in such garments” (II Sam. 13:18). Likewise, “And Yoseph brought bad reports of them to their father” (Gen. 37:2) does not refer to a child tattling on his brothers, but to a supervisor submitting his report. Yoseph, having been made the manager, reported to his father: Today Judah worked well, Naphtali goofed off, Levi did not show up at all.


The Point of the Story


Why does Scripture go into this story in such depth and detail? Surely the purpose of the story is to inform us how our ancestors happened down to Egypt! So why does Scripture have to dwell on this degeneration in sibling relations, revealing the shame of Jacob’s sons in such detail? Bringing bad reports, telling dreams, the father berating his son, sitting down to a meal, dipping the tunic in blood, Reuben making his suggestions and Judah giving his opinion. Why does every Jewish child, in each generation, have to receive such a unkind picture of his ancestors?


The encounter with the group that declared themselves the true heirs of Judaism and its Torah can perhaps sharpen the question and shed light on the issue. Each year, in the same season when Jews read Va-Yeshev, Miketz, and Va-Yigash, when they struggle to understand the nature of Jacob’s sons -- jealousy, selling Yoseph, slavery, and non-recognition -- the Christians celebrate the birth of the person whom they claim to be the son of G-d as well as G-d Himself (see conundrum). That person is perfect beyond words; he knows no sin. Our Scriptures, the eternal “Old” Testament, teach us, in contrast, what was later put succinctly in Solomon’s prayer and Kohelet: “For there is no man who does not sin“ (I Kings 8:46; Kohelet 7:20).


The Torah brings out the character of the group of people chosen to be the core from which “the people close to HaShem“ would issue, precisely by showing their shortcomings and how they came to terms with them. Here, as in the story of David and Bathsheba, Scripture tells of righteous, good people, who had grievous failings. What, then, differentiates the righteous from the wicked? Scripture goes into such detail precisely in order to show the difference between the righteous person who sins and fails and the wicked.


Yoseph was blessed with tremendous administrative talent, actually destined to run an entire empire, yet he was well liked by all his superiors. Naturally he stood out among his brothers, and at age seventeen he dressed like a manager and oversaw the work of people far older than he, people who themselves were of no small consequence. How could fierce jealousy have failed to develop here? The brothers had been spending many hard days out tending the flocks far from home, when along came their young upstart of a brother, well-coiffed and shined, wearing his ornamental tunic. In a moment of ardent emotion Reuben, the main one threatened, tried to return the lad to his father. When his plan failed and their plot was about to be carried, Judah, leader of the brothers, said, “what do we gain by killing our brother?” (Gen. 37:2).


The brothers felt remorse for their entire lives: “we looked on at his anguish, yet paid no heed as he pleaded with us” (Gen. 42:21); “What is this that G-d has done to us?” (Gen. 42:28). Later a situation arose very much like the former one: the father’s favoritism continued, the brothers had the same weaknesses, but this time Benjamin was the test. Judah and his brothers passed this test: “G-d has uncovered the crime of your servants” (Gen. 44:16); “Therefore, please let your servant remain as a slave to my lord instead of the boy” (Gen. 44:33). There is no righteous person who never sins, but observe how the righteous are when they sin. Such types are worthy of being the ancestors of the chosen people.


The detailed description of these events provides protection against undermining monotheism. Only the Creator is entirely righteous and there is none like Him. Human beings all sin. The wicked live in sin and love wickedness. The righteous, when they sin, regret their actions, and mend their ways.


XX. Difficulties Solved


Matityahu (Matthew) 2:14-15 “So (Yoseph) got up, took the child and his mother during the night and left for Egypt, where they stayed until the death of Herod. And so was fulfilled what the Lord had said through the prophet Hosea: ‘Out of Egypt I called my son‘“.

If we interpret Hosea 11:1 (which is here being quoted) using the pshat or literal method we are forced to disagree with Matityahu (Matthew) who directly equates “son” with Yeshua Mashiach because Hoshea (Hosea) is indisputably talking about Israel:


Hoshea (Hosea) 11:1-2 “When Israel was a child, I loved him, and out of Egypt I called my son. But the more I called Israel, the further they went from me”.

We are forced, by the literal exoteric pshat method of scriptural interpretation to conclude that Matityahu (Matthew) was wrong for the “son” here is indisputably Israel and was even called “son” before leaving Egypt:


Shemot (Exodus) 4:22-23 “Then say to Pharaoh, ‘This is what the Lord says: Israel is My firstborn SON, and I told you, “Let My son go, so that he may worship Me.” But you refused to let him go; for I will kill your firstborn son.’”.

The two previous quotations (Matityahu (Matthew) 1:23; 2:6) involved literal fulfillment, but this does not. So how, then, does Yeshua’s flight to Egypt to fulfill what the Lord had said through the prophet Hosea? Is Matityahu misusing Scripture by twisting the meaning of what Hosea wrote?

We are forced to conclude that Matityahu is giving us a remez, a hint of a very deep truth. Israel is called God’s son as far back as Shemot (Exodus) 4:22. The Mashiach is presented as HaShem’s Son a few verses earlier in Matityahu 1:18-25, reflecting Tanach passages such as Yeshayah 9:5-7, Psalm 2 and Mishlei 30:4. Thus, mathematically, one might say, “the Son = the son”: the Mashiach is equated with, is one with, the nation of Israel. This is the deep truth Matityahu is hinting at by calling Yeshua’s flight to Egypt a “fulfillment” of Hoshea (Hosea) 11:1. Thus, as we would say in the Nazarean community, Tanach passages that speak of Israel are also talking allegorically of Mashiach AND vice versa, that is to say, passages talking of Mashiach in the Nazarean Codicil are also talking of Israel, the Covenant People. We discussed this at length in the study on Mashiach.


XXI. Symbols


A footnote in the Soncino Talmud says:


Haklili (red) is read hek li li, a sweet taste is mine, is mine; while wine is taken to symbolize the Torah. Thus the first half of the verse is rendered: Through thy wine (Torah) I enjoy a sweet taste. In the second half of the verse milk is understood to symbolize the Torah, while shinayim (teeth) is connected with shanim (scarlet), and it is rendered: And your scarlet-like (sins) will be white through milk, i.e. for the sake of the Torah.


Midrash Rabbah - Bamidbar (Numbers) X:8 ‘When the wine enters, the secret (sod) comes out’; the numerical total of wine (yayin) is seventy[44] and the total of sod (secret) is seventy.[45]


The word Gadol is a remez to Emunah. How do we know this? In Bereshit we learn of the “Brit Ben HaBitarim,” an agreement between HaShem and Avraham Avinu. In this agreement, HaShem tells Avraham that although Bnei Yisrael will be slaves for 400 years in a strange land, when they are redeemed, they will leave with great riches.

XXII. PaRDeS from the Rabbis




Devarim (Deuteronomy) 7.12 “Vehayah - It shall be ekev - consequent upon tishmeun - your obeying… “


The last letters of the three Hebrew words of our text may be combined to yield haven - understand. (Netivot Shalom)


To remind us of the importance of obeying the Commandments and keeping the mitzvot, we affix mezuzot to our door posts. When affixing a mezuzah we recite the bracha for the mitzva likboa mezuzah - to affix a mezuzah.


The root of likboa is kava. The three letters constituting this term, kuf, bet & ayyin, may be transposed to read ekev - because. The mezuzah held securely on the door post is prevented from being moved aside. When we hold an object firmly, we grasp it; because we grasp it we understand it.


The term ekev - because, in our text teaches that once we understand the true reasons for keeping of the mitzvot they will remain with us secure in their observance and will not be thrust aside.


The num.e. of pardes = 344, which is twice the num.e. of ekev = 2 x 172, which is ekev + keva. The consequence of elucidation by means of pardes is keva - permanence in the mind.


In the footsteps


The Decalogue contains 172 words, the num.e. of ekev. (Baal Haturim)


The Decalogue is the basis of that which is keva (172) the immutable written Torah of Moshe. It’s ekev (172) immediate consequence is the Oral Torah derived there from by means of pardes (2x172). 172 may be reduced to ten, the number of words in the Decalogue.


* * *


The poem of Shir HaShirim begins with the words: “Let him kiss me with the kisses of his mouth” (Shir HaShirim 1.2).


The pshat is self-evident.


The remez - the souls of Moshe, Aharon and Miriam departed with kisses of death. So too do the souls of all the righteous on earth; for it is stated : “Let him kiss me with the kisses of his mouth” (Midrash Rabba).


Midrash - exposition. The text states : “Let him kiss me with the kisses OF his mouth”. We infer from this that only some of HaShem’s kisses in revelation of the Torah were direct kisses. In the dramatic revelation of G-d at Mount Sinai, only the first two of the ten words of the Decalogue were revealed directly by G-d to Israel. These were direct kisses. The rest of the revelation was conveyed to the people through Moshe (Midrash Rabba).


Sod - mystic interpretation. The following is drawn from the Zohar Hadash.


In a kiss of true love, the breath of one partner is transferred to the other, with each receiving and giving of breath.


There are four exchanges of breath. The Hebrew for breath is ruach, which also means spirit. In describing the Mashiach, Yeshayahu (Isaiah) says: “The spirit of HaShem shall rest upon him, the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and might, the spirit of knowledge and of the fear of HaShem” (Yeshayahu (Isaiah) 11.2). In this text there are four references to spirit. In the kiss of true love, the spirit of HaShem rests upon the partners, united in exchange of spirit. The masculine spirit of hasadim - loving kindness, clings to the feminine spirit chachma - wisdom, to give birth to the spirit of perfection (Hasullam).


* * *


“I must rise and roam the town, through the streets and through the squares; I must seek
the one I love” (Shir HaShirim 3.2)

The Vilna Gaon compares this verse with the following passage:


Mishlei (Proverbs) 1:20 “Wisdom cries aloud abroad [beyond the city walls] she utters her voice in the squares; she calls at the head of the noisy streets, at the entrances of the gates in the city, she utters her words”

Four places are mentioned:-


a. beyond the walls at a distance from the city.
b. the squares.

c. the gate entrances where the Shoftim (Judges) set up Court.

d. the busy streets within the city.


Wisdom is Torah and the four places are the four ways in which Torah may be interpreted.
Bahutz - the place outside the walls, is pshat, the literal meaning of the Torah text which
is a far cry from its inner essence.


The place within the city gates is remez - allegory, or allusion which has no clear definition.

The squares are drash, halachic exposition by means of which the way to go is clearly

Finally, the narrow streets within the city representing sod, the inner mystery. (GRA:
Commentary on Shir Hashirim)

One cannot negotiate the inner city streets without first passing through the gate entrances.
Therefore a grasp of the essence of Kaballah requires expertise in the interpretation of
remez, identified with the gate entrances.

The modern Hebrew word for traffic light is ramzor, derived from remez - to hint at, allude to.
Mastery of traffic light signals demands an understanding of the meaning of its changing

There is an aura of seven colors, each with differing and changing colours enveloping the
human body. This aura is the ramzor en route to the hidden mystery beyond. We need to
understand the significance of the signals given out by this multi-colored aura, to gain
access to the inner secrets of mystic man.

The Community of Israel says : “I must rise and roam the town, through the streets and
through the squares; I must seek the one I love”, but she fails in her quest. Because she is
inside the city walls, she does not see the signals of remez at the entrance gates, and
therefore she cannot find the route to sod within.

* * *


The Mishna contains the insights and the symbols of Yom HaKippurim.


* * *


The teshuva (repentance) period is divided into two parts: 30 days (Elul) and ten days (Yamim noraim). Add 30 years to the year A.D. 30 and add 40 years to the year A.D. 30 and you get the year A.D. 70. To the Jews first and then to the Gentiles.


Sichon and Og are significant names.


* * *


The dead – will not be in the kingdom

Neutral – in the kingdom but not of the kingdom.

The Living – Knows the way


* * *


Yeshayahu (Isaiah) 43:4 vs. Bereans (Hebrews) 9:27-28 – sod:


Yeshayahu (Isaiah) 43:4 Since you are precious and honored in my sight, and because I love you, I will give men in exchange for you, and people in exchange for your life.


Bereans (Hebrews) 9:27-28 Just as man is destined to die once, and after that to face judgment, So Mashiach was sacrificed once to take away the sins of many people; and he will appear a second time, not to bear sin, but to bring salvation to those who are waiting for him.


* * *


We arrive at a paradox. He who knows nothing about Torah yet has a burning desire to assimilate its contents, has a greater chance of conquering Sinai than those whose thirst for Torah has been slaked with only a few mouthfuls. At the age of forty, Rabbi Akiva was illiterate. Through application in study, he went ahead to master pshat – the literary meaning of Torah, remez - its allegory, derash - its exposition, and sod - kabbalah, to enter pardes (the initial letters of peshat, remez, derash, sod) = the orchard of paradise.


* * *


Rachel died in childbirth while delivering: Ben oni = Son of my sorrow


Yaakov (Jacob) did not call him Ben oni, he call him: Binyamin = Son of my right hand


The “Lamb of God” died to give birth to “The Son of My Sorrows” (Ben oni), while His Father called Him “The Son of My Right Hand” (Binyamin). The two sons had to do with the two comings. In the first coming, Mashiach was “The Son of My Sorrows” (Ben oni). In the second coming, Mashiach will be “The Son of My Right Hand” (Binyamin).


* * *


Bereshit (Genesis) 38:24-30 About three months later Judah was told, “Your daughter-in-law Tamar is guilty of prostitution, and as a result she is now pregnant.” Judah said, “Bring her out and have her burned to death!” As she was being brought out, she sent a message to her father-in-law. “I am pregnant by the man who owns these,” she said. And she added, “See if you recognize whose seal and cord and staff these are.” Judah recognized them and said, “She is more righteous than I, since I wouldn’t give her to my son Shelah.” And he did not sleep with her again. When the time came for her to give birth, there were twin boys in her womb. As she was giving birth, one of them put out his hand; so the midwife took a scarlet thread and tied it on his wrist and said, “This one came out first.” But when he drew back his hand, his brother came out, and she said, “So this is how you have broken out!” And he was named Perez. Then his brother, who had the scarlet thread on his wrist, came out and he was given the name Zerah.


So, the firstMashiach“, Zeraph, “partially” appeared and is associated with the “red” of our protective abodes. This was not the kingly line. Peretz, the other “Mashiach” forms the line of kings in Israel.


* * *


Symbols and their meanings:


Rest = marriage[46]

Wash yourself = clean yourself from your idolatry[47]


Anoint yourself = with good deeds and righteous conduct.[48]


Spread your robe = your wings; i.e. ‘protection’


* * *


“Egypt” refers not only to the original enslavement of our people, but to the very concept of exile and slavery itself: conditions which limit and confine, constraints which stifle the soul and prevent the realization of its potential (Mitzrayim, Hebrew for Egypt, means “boundaries” or “constraints”) . Hence, a person “goes out” of his personal Egypt by surmounting his own personal limitations, by going beyond what is considered the “most one can do” according to the conventions of his society or his own estimation of self.[49]


* * *


Why is leaven so utterly rejected? Because it bloats and inflates, making of itself more than it is. This, above all else, is most intolerable to HaShem.[50] In the words of our sages: HaShem says of the conceited one: “I and he cannot dwell in the same world“.[51]


* * *


Whenever the scripture use the term “for Me”, that is God. This implies permanence as in:


Devarim (Deuteronomy) 4:10 Remember the day you stood before HaShem your God at Horeb, when he said to me, “Assemble the people before me to hear my words so that they may learn to revere me as long as they live in the land and may teach them to their children.”


* * *


Rashi indicates that whenever we see “The Sea”, without any further description, it always refers to the Mediterranean Sea, which is west of eretz Israel.[52]


* * *


“Vehaya ki tavo el ha’aretz”-”And it will be when you come to the Land”. This paragraph is interpreted in the Midrash Hane-elam (part of the Zohar) as referring to the World to Come. The Tzror Hamor copied extensively from that Midrash on 26, 5.


* * *


Hakham Shaul shows that the following passages seem to conflict: Shaul resolves the apparent conflict by citing Beresheet 15:6 (in Rom. 4:3, 22): “Avraham believed G-d, and it was accounted to him for justice.” Thus Hakham Shaul resolves the apparent conflict by showing that under certain circumstances, belief/faith/trust (same word in Hebrew: EMUNAH) can act as a substitute for righteousness/justice/being just (same word in Hebrew: TSADIQUT). 


* * *


Why in the world did Esav sell his priceless birthright for a pot of lentil soup? Everyone knows that the birthright symbolized eternal life, and the inheritance of the crown of the Jewish People. He who had the birthright would sire the chosen nation, HaShem’s beloved people. What was Esav thinking to sell something of such worth, in exchange for something that was so worthless?[53]


* * *


The Metzora (one who has Tzora’as) represents the Bnei Israel in galut and the geulah: When he is sent outside the camp, it is compared to the Bnei Israel being sent into galut. When he is healed and he returns, it is like doing Teshuva. The Kohen who declares him Tahor, stands for HaShem, Who tells us that the time for geulah has come. He then takes two birds - which stand for Mashiach ben Yoseph and Mashiach ben David, the final Mashiach. The three species (Etz Erez, Ayzov, and red wool) stand for the avot. The purification is done with the bird together with the three species - Mashiach with the merit of the avot. The bird is then set free to fly All over the fields (14:7), which stands for Mashiach ruling over the entire world. And the return of the Metzora to the camp stands for the return of Bnei Israel to Yerushalayim and the Beit HaMikdash - may we merit this right NOW![54]




* * *

The phrase, ‘eretz zavat halav u’dvash’ is first mentioned (twice) in Exodus 3, and numerous times in the book of Deuteronomy. All together it is found almost twenty times in the Bible, and serves as the description, par excellence, of the land of Israel. Only once, is it used insultingly by the Israelites, who complain to Moses, “You took us from a land (i.e. Egypt) flowing with milk and honey into this desert!”


The phrase is a fabulous example of how even a few simple words can be probed for layers of meaning. Let’s explore the various levels Torah can be understood at, remembering, as Rashi often says, quoting the earlier Sages, ‘a verse doesn’t depart from its plain meaning.’ What this means, is that different and even contradictory interpretations can all exist simultaneously. The Rabbis say the Torah has 70 ‘facets’.

‘PaRDeS’, popular way to look at four of these facets, is an acromonym that stands for:


Pshat: the simple meaning



Remez: the alluded meaning



Drash: the metaphoric meaning


Sod: the mystical meaning.


Literal: A land flowing with milk and honey. The milk is probably goat’s milk. Honey (here) is bee honey. (At other times, (in the Seven Species, for example) the word dvash is understood to refer to date syrup. It might also refer to the carob, for it grows in rocky areas, and its ripe pods drip with a sweet substance.) For the generation in the desert, this description portrays a land filled with lush fields, with flowers, and goats grazing on the grass growing between the rocks.


Remez: In Numbers, we read that the scouts return with pomegranates, figs and grapes as a confirmation that it is a land ‘flowing with milk and honey,’ yet they brought back no dairy products. We can therefore assume that the expression can be understood also to mean: a land of abundance and fertility.


Drash: The Rabbis also note that milk and honey are among two of the substances that the Torah is compared to. In Shir HaShirim, we read, ‘milk and honey are under your tongue.’ The idea that the ‘land’ is actually a kind of Torah can also be seen by the unusual phrase: (Deut. 11:12) “A land which HaShem looks after” using the verb we typically associate with what I am doing; making a midrash. We can then understand the ‘land of milk and honey’ in an entirely new way, that Torah is not talking about a physical land, but to the ‘land of Torah.’ When we live in a world where Torah is real to us, then we are living in the place God wants.


Sod: This is the mystical level. According to our teacher of Zohar, Justin Lewis, the Zohar associates honey with the Oral Torah, which is to say with Malkhut (which is also associated with the Land of Israel)! Milk is associated with Chesed or with mysterious high levels of the Divine which are the source of Chesed; Chesed is white like mother’s milk. (Milk is also associated in some texts with the Oral Torah/Malkhut (as distinct from wine which those texts associate with the Written Torah/Tif’eret).



In parshat Eikev, the Midrash Sifrei finds this phrase along with many other descriptors, the most familiar being the description of Shivat Haminim, and note the repeating ‘eretz, the land.’

The Rabbis find another five occurences nearby to make a total of twelve, and suggest, “one ‘ha’aretz’ for each of the twelve tribes: the land of this one, was not like the land of that one; the fruit of this one was not the fruit of that one; the hills of this one were not the hills of that one.” Each tribe had their own ‘ha’aretz.’

* * *


This study was written by

Rabbi Dr. Hillel ben David

(Greg Killian).

Comments may be submitted to:


Rabbi Dr. Greg Killian

4544 Highline Drive SE

Olympia, WA 98501


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[1] Bamidbar Rabbah, Naso 13:15

[2] Gaon of Vilna in Aderet Eliyahu, Bereshit 1:1; Maharal of Prague

[3] In Pirkei Avot (3:23), the Mishna quotes Rabbi Eliezer ben Chisma as follows: “The laws of bird-offerings and the laws of Pischei Niddah are essential laws … astronomy and gematriaot are like the seasonings of wisdom.” The Mishna may be referring to mathematics in general as “gematriaot,” but certainly the specific meaning referred to above is included, as well.

Rashi himself uses the technique of gematria occasionally (e.g. Shemot 23:21), but the parshan who specializes in the technique is the Baal HaTurim, Rabbi Yaakov ben HaRosh, the Talmudic giant who codified the Laws of Judaism during the Middle Ages in the “Four Turim.” Most of the gematriaot he offers check out computationally; that is, the gematria of one word-set does in fact equal the gematria of the other word-set. However, surprisingly, some do not!


[4] Pirke Avot 5:1; Babylonian Talmud Tractate Megillah 21b

[5] Gaon of Vilna in Aderet Eliyahu, Bereshit 1:1; Maharal of Prague

[6] Maimonides, Guide for the Perplexed 2:30 (13th Century)

[7] The Vilna Gaon. - the book of “Siddur”

[8] Sha’arei Leshem, p. 454

[9] As a slave.

[10] Drushei Olam HaTohu 2:151b

[11] The Hermeneutical Laws for the first and second levels of Rabbinical Hermeneutics you will find in the Siddur. In the ArtScroll Siddur (Nusach Sefard), pp. 53-54, which are found in the Morning Service on the “Offerings Section” before the “Kadish D’Rabanan” (The Rabbi’s Kaddish) and which are a quote from the Sifra. The laws of Hermeneutics for this second level are recited every single day of the year by all Torah Observant Jews!

[12] Greek form of the Hebrew Mordecai.

[13] Greek form of the Hebrew Hillel.

[14] Midrash Rabbah - Numbers XVI:1

[15] Much of this chronology comes from The ArtScroll Tanach Series, “Joshua”, edited by Rabbis Nosson Scherman and Meir Zlotowitz

[16] Caleb and Pinchas

[17] Targum renders this as “a border of red cloth”.

[18] Joshua 5:10

[19] The Haggadah contains a poem about midnight: The beleaguered (Jericho) was besieged on Passover.

[20] Midrash Rabbah – Genesis 47:10 It was taught: This is permitted even on the Sabbath. Hezekiah taught: [Thou mayest build bulwarks against the city that maketh war with thee,] until it fall (Deut. XX, 20): even on the Sabbath, for thus we find that Jericho was indeed reduced on the Sabbath.

[21] II Kings XXII, 14.

[22] Jud. II, 9. This is interpreted as ‘Timnath belonging to Heres’, who is identified with Harhas.

[23] Josh. II, 18.

[24] Lit., ‘old eye’.

[25] Alluding perhaps to his ugliness (Maharsha).

[26] Lit., ‘from me and thee is the matter concluded’.

[27] I Chron. VII, 27. The genealogy stops at this point; from which it is inferred that Joshua had no sons.

[28] V. Gen. XIX, 26.

[29] Lit., ‘was swallowed in its place’.

[30] Ex. XIV, 22.

[31] Josh. III, 17.

[32] V. Jer. XLI, 1, 2.

[33] Supra, LXXV, 4.

[34] This is obscure. Possibly this is a play on dothaynah (to Dothan), which is read dathe Jah ‘ the laws (here, the designs) of God ‘-all these events led up to the fuifilrnent of God’s designs, viz. Israel’s servitude in Egypt. Cur. edd. omit this caption and read: AND THE MAN SAID: TH EY ARE DEPARTED HENCE (XXXVII, 17) - from the qualities of the Almighty. (For His qualities are kindness and love, whereas they are scheming acts of cruelty and inhumanity.)

[35] This is based on the second half of the verse: AND BEFORE HE CAME NEAR UNTO THEM THEY CONSPIRED AGAINST HIM TO SLAY HIM, which is interpreted as meaning that they conspired to slay him even before he reached them; this they could do by inciting the dogs.

[36] Sc. the Egyptians. He renders ba’al ha-halomoth (E.V. ‘ the dreamer ‘): he will give us a master through his dreams-a prophecy of how his dreams led to their servitude in Egypt. Y.T. renders: They exclaimed that this one would lead them astray in the service of Baal-a reference to Jeroboarn and Ahab who were descended from Yoseph (the latter is an assumption).

[37] The Soncino Midrash Rabbah has the following footnote: This is obscure. Possibly this is a play on dothaynah (to Dothan), which is read dathe Jah ‘ the laws (here, the designs) of God ‘-all these events led up to the fuifilrnent of God’s designs, viz. Israel’s servitude in Egypt.

[38] Moses. Aaron. and Miriam.

[39] Miriam died in Nisan, and in the same month the doom of Moses and Aaron was pronounced at the waters of Meribah (Y.K.).

[40] E.V. ‘together’.

[41] Cf. Num. R. 1, 2.

[42] Because the cloud which protected them had departed.

[43] V. Sot. 36a.

[44] h = 10; h =10; i = 50; total =70.

[45] x = 60; u = 6; s = 4; total = 70. Hence one drives out the other.

[46] Zohar Chadash

[47] Torah T’mimah

[49] Lubavitcher Rebbe Shlita

[50] Lubavitcher Rebbe Shlita

[51] Talmud, Erchin 15b

[52] Rashi to Exodus 10

[53] Rabbi Lipman Podolsky

[54] Or HaChaim, From: Discover Moshiach in the Weekly Torah Portion)